World Federalism is an ideology and movement aiming to create a global federal government. A world federation would have authority on issues of global reach, while the power over local matters would reside in the members of such federation, the overall sovereignty over the world population would largely reside in the federal government. Although its supporters vary economically, ranging from socialists or social democrats to georgists or neoliberals, all world federalists emphasize the importance and value of Humanism.
Ultimately, the goal of world federalism is to combat and eventually triumph over the various demons that have hung over humanity's shoulders for so long. Namely, bringing about an end to poverty, war, climate change, and harmful tribalist mentalities. While these aspirations may seem grandiose or utopian, world federalists assert that such thinking is counterproductive and is exactly why we have these problems in the first place. As of now, there is still no singular or cohesive theory to world federalism. Some argue that the very notion of ethnicity or race should eventually be done away with while other, more moderate supporters, assert that solely the implementation of a global federal government is needed. As such, its base is a wide collection of idealists, humanists, economists, and humanitarians that are willing to band together and believe humanity's biggest problems require a big solution that can only be solved under a single federal state.
History and General Concepts
World federalism has evolved from more general proposals for a world government. Proposals for a world government can be found as far back as Ancient Greece, India, Persia and China, mostly tied to a mystical cosmology. Alexander the Great pursued the goal of conquering the entire known world and subjugating it under his rule. World governments in various forms later appeared in the works of Dante Alighieri, Immanuel Kant, Anacharsis Cloots and Johann Gottlieb Fichte, where it was explicitly proposed as a means of securing world peace. A world parliament as an integral part of a world republic was mentioned first by Pecqueur in 1842. The idea has been popularized by a number of prominent authors, such as Alfred Tennyson and H. G. Wells. The late 19th century has also seen the establishment of a number of international institutions, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Telegraphic Union, the Universal Postal Union and the Inter-Parliamentary Union with the goal of serving as "an international congress which should meet periodically to discuss international questions".
After the conclusion of the "war to end all wars" many began to speculate how future global conflicts could be prevented. This would ultimately lead to the first attempts to create a united world government, involving some of the first world federalists. The most successful attempt after the war could be seen with the creation of the league of nations on January 10th, 1920. Although a notable achievement, the organization would ultimately fail largely due to the fact that it required practically unilateral agreement by every member state to make any decision. The rise of fascism and ultranationalism across the globe following the great depression would eventually prove to be the final nail in the coffin for the League of Nations as it failed to stop the aggressive actions of Germany, Italy, and Japan (among others). This "rise of nationalism and the growing threat of fascism in Europe caused a resurgence of the idea of a unified world. With the release of the book Union Now, Clarence Streit proposed a political union of democratic nations. The United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Ireland, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland were to form the seed for a democratic world republic. A world congress made up of a House of Representatives and a Senate should decide on matters related to defense, trade and currency". Following the Axis defeat and the conclusion of the second world war, World Federalism would see an all-time high of support (perhaps the most support it has ever received) which would only be emboldened by the creation of the United Nations in 1945. Other intra-state organizations like the European Union and African Union would later be created, partially embodying the values established by World Federalism. In fact, the African Union is the only intra-state organization that officially lists the unification of all of its member states as one of its eventual goals. It should be noted that Africa and India are notable contributors to the World Federalist Movement, producing prominent supporters including, but not limited to Nelson Mandela, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Mahatma Gandhi. This is in part a consequence of de-colonization and anti- imperialist movements in their respective regions.
Although World Federalist movements exist today, the ideology is nowhere near as prevalent as it once was following the conclusions of WWI/WW2. Rising nationalist sentiment across practically every country worldwide along with increasing skepticism of globalism have dealt a serious blow to any possibility of getting remotely close to the creation of a global federal government. Furthermore, the questionable effectiveness and success of the United Nations have made many question whether any inter-state organizations are actually needed or necessary. However, the problems brought on by man-made climate change have potentially revitalized the movement, with many arguing that the only way the world's nations can handle this environmental disaster is by banding together and forming a united environmentalist front that is able to enforce policy in every nation. While the future may look bleak, World Federalism continues to move forward, hoping that perhaps one day, its time will finally come.
As established in its name, world federalism wants divisions of power between federal and localized governments in a theoretical world state. This limits bureaucracy and gives sufficient autonomy to the wide variety of different peoples that would make up the political and social body of the world nation. In practice, this limits the authority of the central government and allows regional governments to create many of their own laws and regulations depending on their unique needs and values. As such, this prevents an inefficient and bloated government.
At the core of world federalism are its humanist principles and philosophical origins. Regardless of an individual's ancestral origin, ethnicity, race, or gender, all people are humans and should be treated as such. This means world federalists are "responsible for the promotion and development of individuals [and must uphold] the equal and inherent dignity of all human beings, [generally emphasizing] a concern for humans in relation to the world." This may also extend to the enforcement of a secular value (ie a strict separation of church and state) while maintaining one's right to practice or not practice whichever faith they choose. In the modern context, it can be argued that the protection and preservation of the environment is a humanist issue as it has enormous negative consequences on millions of humans' lives.
Unification of Humanity
The final, and perhaps the most defining characteristic of world federalism is its goal to create a global government encompassing all people across the Earth. This goal must be achieved through peaceful means (ie no conquest ) and has no solidified method. The most common suggestion is to reform the current United Nations by reforming or abolishing the Security Council and giving greater powers to the General Assembly.
World federalists have a shared sense of humanity that manifests itself through an attachment to a human identity that surpasses all other identities. Concepts like race, culture, religion, or ethnicity are less important to world federalists than the common humanity found in all people.
Criticisms and Arguments Against World Federalism
Perhaps one of the most common arguments against world federalism is its feasibility. Managing the entirety of the global population under one government is far easier said than done and is exceedingly complicated when considering the enormous diversity of religions, cultures, and ethnicities that exist across the world. Historically multi-ethnic countries and regions such as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Yugoslavia, Post-Colonial Africa, Syria, Israel-Palestine, Iraq, etc. have demonstrated that managing a diverse nation can be incredibly difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, the sheer number of people (likely to plateau near 10 billion) could become an administrative nightmare. Ultimately, some argue that the peoples of Earth are far too different to cooperate and that we are better off completely independent from one another. However, a common response to this argument is that world federalism is a long term goal and most acknowledge that it cannot be reasonably implemented in our current time. Instead, individuals and states should aim to strengthen their bonds with each other and increase the power of international institutions, such as the UN, while advocating for principles associated with world federalism and humanism. The fact that the ideology supports federalism is also meant to account for this problem. By providing local communities with greater autonomy, they may be part of a greater human identity while maintaining their differences. Additionally, some might assert that a widespread pan-humanist movement will eventually form which could lead to the creation of a global nation. In other words, world federalists acknowledge the challenge of the times, but believe that the actions and behaviors of individuals will contribute to gradual change and eventual societal reform.
Globalization and the degradation of culture
Another common argument is that a world government would inherently create a more homogenous humanity thereby overpowering smaller cultures and communities, eventually leading to the destruction of their way of life. While different world federalists may have differing views on this topic, most will agree that this is not the intention or goal of world federalism. Although the creation of a world government could lead to a more homogenous humanity, the federal structure of World Federalism is intended to allow different groups of people to keep their way of life alive by providing them the authority to govern themselves at the local level. One might picture a more decentralized form of the United States federal state structure, for example. This, of course, is under the assumption that local communities and indigenous populations are given representation as promoted by world federalists.
Effectiveness of the United Nations
Arguments against world federalism often cite the effectiveness, or perhaps more appropriately, the ineffectiveness of the United Nations and its predecessor, the League of Nations. In other words, the fact that the United Nations has been unable to live up to many of its values and goals is evidence that a global government of any capacity is impossible. While it is true that the UN has failed in many respects ( Rwandan Genocide Libyan and Syrian Civil Wars, etc) it is important to note the very real accomplishments the UN has achieved in its short history. One of, if not the most notable of which is the absence of a major global conflict and/or nuclear war, largely thanks to the efforts of the UN Security Council. While there are still conflicts across the globe that have killed millions, the absence of a global conflict is notable. Although some might credit nuclear deterrence as the main reason for this absence, one could point to the numerous instances in which nuclear war was only narrowly avoided thanks to diplomatic efforts across multiple nation-states. Furthermore, perhaps one of the most understated achievements of the United Nations was its contributions to the eradication of smallpox and its continued effort to fight diseases across the globe. This development in human history is a direct byproduct of the United Nations and has undoubtedly saved millions of people. This, of course, does not erase the aforementioned failures of the UN, but highlights many criticisms that World Federalists themselves have about the organization. Specifically, that the UN is largely unable to live up to its own principles and standards. One argument sometimes made by WFs is support for Security Council reform. This take is portrayed well by the organization: Uniting for Consensus, which argues that the number of non-permanent SC members should be increased to better represent the interests of non-western nations along with limiting the powers of the veto for permanent SC members. Proponents of this idea usually advocate for greater powers to the general assembly as well. The main takeaway, is ultimately that world federalists are often just as critical of the UN as others are. However, they provide solutions to the problem instead of suggesting that the UN is a lost cause. This has become particularly true due to climate change since it is seemingly impossible to implement effective climate policy without the use of a global polity.
World Federalism is a compassionate and enthusiastic ideology that constantly encourages others to cooperate with one another. He is generally very friendly to other ideologies as long as they are not nationalists. He is also rather articulate and intelligent for an ideology, often having extensive knowledge of history, geography, and even physics. This is likely due to the fact that his supporters are amongst the ranks of Albert Einstein, H.G. Wells, Martin Luther King Jr., Sylvia Plath, Ashley Montagu, and Kurt Vonnegut. While this is generally a positive thing, it can often result in World Federalism being perceived as elitist and pretentious.
Behavior and Interests
World Federalism is energetic and passionate and often goes into long rants about the dangers of tribalism and why he can solve all the world's problems. He is also very optimistic and is able to stay positive even in some of the direst situations. When not interacting with other ideologies World Federalism will likely either be reading, studying physics, or participating in community service and/or humanitarian work.
How to Draw
The world federalism design is based on the earth flag proposed by Oskar Pernefeldt in 2015 (Dark Blue Background with the flower of life in center) The seven intersected rings represent the 7 continents and the interconnected histories of their people. The blue background represents the oceans that make up 70% of Earth's surface.
- Draw a ball
- Fill ball with #0030ad
- Draw seven white intersecting rings in the center
- Add the eyes and you're done!
- Federalism - An excellent concept that works perfectly for my vision of a unified humanity.
- Globalism - Bringing people closer together, one day at a time.
- Environmentalism - Defending our environment and countering climate change are perhaps the most pertinent issues of our time.
- Multiculturalism - Our differences are beautiful once you are able to understand the story behind them. We are all one race, but that does not mean we are all the same!
- Cosmopolitanism - Absolutely incredible, focusing on what unites us is more important than emphasizing what divides us.
- Welfarism - We need a global welfare state to help the unfortunate around us.
- Democratic Socialism - Many of my most famous supporters were proponents of you.
- Alter-Globalization - You want to unite the world while protecting workers and the common people, wonderful! Still doesn't like my idea of a single world government but I try to get along with him nonetheless
whether he likes it or not. Also, please stop liking him so much.
- Georgism - Your ideas are surprisingly compatible with mine. The land of the world belongs to all people and those that claim it for themselves do so at the cost of others.
- Humanism - We have a duty to protect people, wherever or whoever they may be!
- Scientocracy & Technocracy - We have similar interests and I particularly like your dedication to science, knowledge, and education. CERN is a great example of international scientific collaboration.
- Bull Moose Progressivism - I like Teddy, he also agrees with me on trusts (see below).
- Anationalism - While we both agree on a united world, I definitely don't think anarchism is the best way to achieve that.
- Albert Camus Thought - Another anarchist who apparently advocated for both me and the EU. Again, I don't like anarchism at all, but thanks for the support I guess.
- Pan-Nationalism - Although you are technically a nationalist, unifying and (mostly) making peace with your neighbors is definitely an admirable goal and would be a good step towards world integration. I am basically a pan-humanist or pan-earthist.
- European Federalism - Just a more specific variant of pan-nationalism, though I definitely like how many of your supporters have me in mind in the long term. Just know that I'll be pretty happy if you ever decide to fully federalize.
- Neoliberalism - I like the fact that you have lifted many out of poverty and support open borders and multiculturalism, but your trickle-down and welfare cuts have led to growing inequality.
- Trotskyism - You are an advocate for equality and a united world which are both excellent, however, your support for violent revolution is... concerning to say the least.
- Neoconservatism - Same as above, but capitalist.
- Neo-Libertarianism - Same as above, but right-libertarian.
- State Liberalism - Yeah, we both hate xenophobic nationalists and desire a united Earth, but could you like, calm down just a little, please? Also, a unitary world government doesn't really sound feasible.
- Interculturalism - It really depends. If you have people like me in mind then I'd argue you might be even better than standard multiculturalism. If you have people like them in mind, then I'm not really a fan.
- Universal Monarchism - This would only be acceptable if it is a constitutional or ceremonial monarchy. Obviously, an absolute monarchy would be unitary and I am a federalist.
I wish I was the God-Emperor of All Mankind (pre-Horus Heresy).
Tribalists and Racists
- Nationalists - The suffering you have caused through your hatred will never be forgiven!
- Civic Nationalism - Nationalism and my ideals are like water and oil, and no amount of "multicultural civic pride" is going to change that.
- Left-Wing Nationalism - A nationalist is still a nationalist no matter if they're left or right. And for the love of god wanting to unite humanity does not make me some sort of evil neo-colonialist or anything.
- Patriotism - Definitely not as bad as regular nationalism, but still pretty annoying. You should see other people as fellow world citizens.
- White Nationalism - Has humanity not suffered enough due to the white race you glorify?
Woodrow Wilson was kinda cool though.
- Ultranationalism - Easily the worst nationalist by a long shot.
- Black Nationalism - Sorry, but nationalism, especially of the racial kind, is disgusting no matter what "progressive" cause you pretend to fight for. You simply can't claim to hate racism while inciting racial hatred and thinking that uniting with people of other races is bad. The United States of Africa would be a good step in the right direction though.
- Imperialism - Your violent methods failed and you did not achieve world unification, no matter what empire I talk about. Also, many of you are straight-up racial or ethnic supremacists.
- Ethnocracy - No ethnicity is superior.
- Isolationism - Why are you so distrustful of outsiders? You only further divide the various people of the world. We got your little cottage in the forest surrounded, consume the corn syrup!
- Urbism - Probably one of the stupidest ideas I've ever heard.
- National Socialism - You're pretty much the ultimate warning for what extreme nationalism leads to.
- Anarchism - While a few of my more left-leaning supporters may not outright hate you, the fact is that I don't care if you say that 'anarchism' and 'anarchy' somehow aren't the same thing. Believe it or not, we can have a borderless society without your gullible idea of just completely getting rid of the state.
- National Anarchism - NO.
- National Primitivism & Odalism - Now what, Fascist-Tribalism? Where are these abominations coming from?
- Tribalism - We need a united world state, not isolated tribes.
- National Conservatism - An overwhelmingly annoying nationalist and rightist.
- Alt-Right and Alt-Lite - Edgy contrarians who hate multiculturalism and open borders.
- Right-Wing Populism - Delusional conspiracy theorist who thinks that I'm the Illuminati.
- Paleoconservatism - Isolationist boomer who thinks I'm the Antichrist.
- Paleolibertarianism - Same as above but LibRight.
- Reactionary Liberalism & National Liberalism - The worst kind of liberalism.
- National Libertarianism - Another lolbertarian who hates immigrants, multiculturalism, and internationalist entities.
- Fascism - Hyper-nationalism, militarism, and incredibly violent... overall terrible.
- Voluntary Human Extinction - I... Why? Humanity has made mistakes, but to suggest that we must exterminate ourselves is idiotic. Killing humans would only give way to the evolution of other intelligent beings, starting the cycle over again. In life, there is purpose and meaning.
- Stratocracy - War... need I say more?
- Posadism - UFO cultist scum who thinks that literally nuking humans will be a good thing.
Fear The Alien. Hate The Alien. Kill The Alien!
- Illuminatism - Unlike you coward, I want to rule the world in the open and have no reason to hide it.
- Theocracies - I respect your right to practice your faith, but trying to force them on everyone else is never a good idea.
- Patriarchy - Giving women full equality not only gives them what they deserve as humans but also has enormous benefits on the economy and overall well-being of the world. Shame on you.
- Manosphere - An utterly insufferable fanboy of the guy above.
- Caste System - You do absolutely nothing but prevent social mobility, lower the quality of life, and prevent progress.
- Anti-Environmentalism - Protecting the environment protects humanity, so stop denying science and trying to prevent us from moving forward.
- Separatism - You continue to delay my eventual creation from nations getting bigger and unifying and you are largely a product of modern nationalism.
- Irredentism - Another product of nationalism, this time even more childish and violent.
- Jingoism - Ok, maybe I talked too fast...
- Social Darwinism - Your scientific beliefs are outdated and just lead to disastrous consequences...
- Avaritionism - ...Like him.
- Unitarism - You're simply far too centralized. Federalism is the only way a unified humanity could function.
- Corporatocracy - Under the current system of global governance, large multi-national corporations avoid taxes and regulations, damage the environment, and cause global wealth inequality. Also, the influence that military contractors have over governments is one of the main reasons behind many recent wars.
- National Capitalism - Nazi monopolism is even worse,
but more green.
- Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race by Ashley Montagu
- The Global Commonwealth of Citizens. Toward Cosmopolitan Democracy by Daniele Archibugi
- Baratta, Joseph. Barnesandnoble.com, The Politics of World Federation, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003). Introduction available Globalsolutions.org
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- Hamer, Chistopher. UNW.edu.au, Global Parliament - Principles of World Federation (Oyster Bay, NSW: Oyster Bay Books, 1998).
- Kant, Immanuel. "To Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch", (Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2003).
- Lothian, Philip Henry Kerr. "Pacifism is Not Enough, Nor Patriotism Either", (Clarendon Press, 1935).
- Lykov Andrey Yurievich. World state as the future of the international community (Moscow: Prospekt, 2013).
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- Global Democracy: For and Against. Ethical Theory, Institutional Design and Social Struggles by Raffaele Marchetti
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- Reves, Emery The Anatomy of Peace Harper and Brothers, 1945
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- Wells, Henry George. "The Outline of History", (George Newnes, 1920).
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Credit: TheLegend2T, Source