Social Authoritarianism is an economically center-left, authoritarian, and culturally variable ideology that advocates a strictly regulated capitalist economy with a strong welfare state and (sometimes) trade unions, but, unlike Social Democracy, has little to no democracy. It believes welfare must be implented though a strong state to work in the long run. And to combat political oppoments too.
Social Authoritarian Democracy
Social Authoritarian Democracy is similar in many ways to social democracy but differs in that they support a constitution that gives wide ranging powers to the president, allowing them to ignore the legislature if they desire, often to allow social and economic progress to be ushered in much faster without worries of corruption holding up "necessary" reforms. It can also be seen as the only true example of a benevolent dictatorship. Two notable examples are Tridemism and Kemalism.
Police Labourism is an ideology that advocates for universal healthcare, empowering unions, government regulation to protect small businesses, workers and consumers and, often, anti-communism. The same causes as SocDem with an exception to their view on the police, supporting expanding police power, more police on the streets and viewing crime as one of the key issues for any government to solve.
Several authoritarian governments supported Social Capitalism. They favored the implementation of a social market economy or humanistic capitalism within the context of a strong central government. In many cases they could be considered authoritarian capitalists who are more interventionist and welfarist than their more traditional free-market/laissez-faire counterparts. Examples of this include Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan and Hu Jintao of China.
Some social liberals embraced authoritarian means to implementing their policies. Although more market-based than traditional social democrats, they still favor significant government intervention into the economy and safety nets to maximize human potential (e.g., implementing the minimum wage to help low-wage workers in the absence of competition); some even embraced corporatism or class collaboration, although a few social liberal movements preferred safety nets over trade unions. Despite being a democratic republic, US presidents Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, and Lyndon B. Johnson are often considered authoritarian for promoting centralization, empowering federal agencies, crackdowns on dissent (e.g., socialists and anti-war protesters), and in some cases suppression of civil rights.
Some social authoritarians want an heavily regulated and state-controlled economy that isn't capitalistic, usually believing in socialism and even communism. Examples include Josip Broz Tito in Yugoslavia, Raúl Castro in Cuba, Muammar Gaddafi in Libya, and Houari Boumédiene in Algeria.
Third Way Perspective
Many authoritarian regimes followed Third Way economics, which in itself is a synthesis of neoliberal and socially liberal/ socially democratic economic policies. Authoritarian regimes which embrace the Third Way tend to implement deregulation, privatization, private-public partnerships, and anti-poverty measures. Two notable example of this are Eduard Shevardnadze in Georgia and Thaksin Shinawatra in Thailand. It can be seen as a more pro-welfare version of State Liberalism
Main Articles: Bismarckism and Social Democracy
Main Article: Left-Wing Nationalism and Paternalistic Conservatism
Lukashenkoism is an center-authoritarian left and culturally center-right ideology that belongs to the belorussian president Alexander Lukashenko. He is noted for hating the West, the EU, and gay people. It is also anti-nationalist and Soviet nostalgist, preferring to speak Russian and flying the Soviet flag. Although, it's only a conservative socialist in aesthetics, since the economy is a state capitalist economy with a welfare state.
- Ramiz Alia: Ramiz Alia could be seen as Social Authoritarian as he gradually shifted the Party of Labour of Albania from Hoxhaism to social democracy during his rule and de jure ending, but de facto keeping the one-party system until his resignation in 1992. Now Socialist Party of Albania (PLA's successor) is a typical social democratic party.
The United States
Main Articles: Social Liberalism, Bull Moose Progressivism and Longism
Getulism was a center-authoritarian left, strongly paternalist, populist, and nationalist ideology based on the ideas of Getúlio Vargas (1882-1954), who ruled Brazil as a dictator from 1930 to 1945, and as an elected official from 1951 to 1954. It was heavily inspired by Castilhismo, the ideology of the former governor of Rio Grande do Sul Júlio de Castilhos (1860-1903), which held three basic tenets:
- Rulers must be choosed based on their moral purity and not their popularity;
- Partisan disputes must be eliminated and instead, virtue should be valorized;
- The ruler should "regenerate society", and the State should direct its transformation and modernization.
Getulism was also inspired by Benito Mussolini's fascism during Vargas' time as a dictator, but shifted further to the left after WW2, becoming prominent in the Brazilian Labour Party. Getúlio believed in the creation of a strong centralized state led by a paternalistic figure, whose duty was to "morally regenerate society" through political reforms meant to uphold the well-being of the people. His policies featured an exacerbated populism centered around his image.
He saw the role of the State as an institution meant to guide the population toward a virtuous, modern society, using its authority and the collective interests to achieve general welfare. Under modernist principles, national prosperity was also an important objective, which should be achieved through the development of the industry. Getúlio also believed that labourism was an essential step towards a just society and that the benefit of the people through public services was a social obligation for those in power. His government has led to the first major advancements in labour rights in Brazilian history.
- Socialismo Moreno (English: "Dark-Skinned Socialism") is the political doctrine adopted by Getúlio Vargas' followers and by the Democratic Labour Party since the 1950s, after his death. It is the heir of the Getulist legacy in Brazil; as such, it takes a lot from his ideas, like nationalism, developmentalism, economic interventionism, and labour rights, with some small cliques seeing it instead as democratic socialism adapted to the Brazilian reality.
Geiselism is the ideology of the 29th president of Brazil, Ernesto Geisel. He assumed the presidency in 1974 during the Brazilian military dictatorship. His government caught the country in the middle of the 1973 oil crisis, but it still implemented state funding on social measures. Even though he helped to loosen authoritarianism, he still approved the persecution of the opposition.
- Rafael Franco - He came to power after the overthrow of the Ayala government in 1936 and came out of power a year later. His government was marked by labor reforms, the creation of state-owned companies and banks, land reform and a base price for essential commodities. In March 1936, Franco banned all political parties and proclaimed that the February revolution will follow the totalitarian regimes of Europe.
Main Article: Peronism
Juan Velasco Thought (officially known as "Peruanismo" (Peruvianism) during Juan Velasco's military government) is a left-wing ideology originally from Peru, based on the thought of former Peruvian president Juan Velasco Alvarado (1910-1977), during the first phase (1968-1975) of the military dictatorship called "Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces" (1968-1980). This ideology arises with the October 3rd 1968 coup d'etat in Peru, ruling until August 29 1975, when another coup was done making Francisco Morales Bermúdez the de facto Peruvian president.
It believes in a political-economic system which would not be capitalist neither communist, while often accused of de facto being pro-Soviet and socialist-leaning; it's developmentalist and highly nationalist, with a strong state control over property and the creation of self-managed socialist cooperatives. Culturally, it promotes Peruvian culture even sometimes rejecting western culture. It's authoritarian and militaristic, rejecting both armed revolutions and multi-party elections; while it rejected political parties as a ruling methog, de facto it established a one-party state with SINAMOS (Sistema Nacional de Apoyo a la Movilización Social, "National System of Support for Social Mobilisation" in English) being de facto ruling party (while it was government agency rather than a proper political party). In foreign policy, it was neutral in the Cold War (while again de facto being somewhat pro-Soviet in foreign policy), and it supported other anti-imperialist movements in Latin America (like Allende's Chile, Torrijos' Panama, etc)
- Fatah - Fatah is a Palestinian party that emerged in 1965 (actually it emerged in 1959, but as a movement, not a party), which preaches a Social Democratic economy, Secularism and Militarism.
Main Article: Ba'athism
- Thaksin Shinawatra is a Thai billionaire, the founder of mobile phone operator Advanced info service and IT and telecommunications conglomerate Shin Corporation, a former police officer, the founder of Thai Rak Thai Party (TRT), who served as the Prime Minister of Thailand from 2001 to 2006. Thaksin ran on a populist platform and during his tenure launched programs to reduce poverty, expand infrastructure, promote small and medium-sized enterprises, and extend universal healthcare coverage.
Thaksin and his government did however show authoritarian tendencies on multiple occasions. He declared a "war on drugs" in which more than 2,500 people were killed and took a strong-arm approach against the separatist insurgency in the Muslim southern provinces. Thaksin also got his country involved in the Iraq War following the US-led invasion of Iraq. Thailand contributed 423 non-combat troops in August 2003 to nation-building and medical assistance in post-Saddam Iraq. Troops of the Royal Thai Army were attacked in the 2003 Karbala bombings, which killed two soldiers and wounded five others. However, the Thai mission in Iraq was considered an overall success, and Thailand withdrew its forces in August 2004. The mission was considered the main reason the United States decided to designate Thailand as a major non-NATO ally in 2003.
A citizens' movement against Thaksin, called the People's Alliance for Democracy or "Yellow Shirts", launched mass protests, accusing him of corruption, abuse of power, and autocratic tendencies.
Thaksin was overthrown in a military coup on 19 September 2006 and was barred from all political activity. He has continued to influence Thai politics from abroad through the Pheu Thai Party, as well as the United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or the "Red Shirt" movement which challenges the power of the Military Dictatorship and aims for greater democracy and justice in Thai politics. His younger sister Yingluck Shinawatra was the prime minister of Thailand from 2011 to 2014 until she too was ousted in a military coup.
- Rodrigo Duterte - Rodrigo Duterte reached the presidency of the Philippines in 2016. During the presidency, he has impacted an economic system of cooperatives between public-private companies, and also preaches increased annual spending on infrastructure and a State Capitalist economy with Welfare.
Main Article: Tridemism
Main Articles: Tridemism and Marxist Feminism
- Bo Xilai is a Chinese former politician who was convicted on bribery and embezzlement charges. Bo Xilai served as a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and Communist Party Secretary of Chongqing from 2007 until his arrest in 2012.
As Communist Party Secretary of Chongqing, Bo Xilai initiated a campaign against organized crime, increased spending on welfare programs, maintained consistent double-digit percentage GDP growth, and campaigned to revive Cultural Revolution-era "red culture". Bo's promotion of egalitarian values and the achievements of his Chongqing model made him the champion of the Chinese New Left, composed of both Maoists and social democrats disillusioned with the country's market-based economic reforms and increasing economic inequality.
From 2009 to 2011 Bo Xilai and Police Chief Wang Lijun oversaw the "Chongqing Gang Trials" (or "Dahei Campaign") in which a total of 4,781 suspects were arrested, including 19 suspected crime bosses, hundreds of triad members, and a number of allegedly corrupt police, government, and Communist party officials. The Chongqing Gang Trials were heavily criticized for their lack of due process and for the arrests of innocents for political gain and suppression of dissent.
As part of Bo Xilai and Wang Lijun's war on crime to maintain social and political stability in Chongqing, a major electronic surveillance operation that involved wiretaps, eavesdropping, and monitoring of internet communications was initiated with the help of Fang Binxing, the father of the Great Firewall. The eavesdropping operations did not only target local criminals, but also the communications of top Chinese leaders, including those of the CPC General Secretary Hu Jintao, as Bo Xilai tried to monitor nearly all central leaders who had visited Chongqing to better understand what they thought of him as he was set on being promoted to the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party.
Bo Xilai's political fortunes would come to an abrupt end following the Wang Lijun incident, in which his top lieutenant sought asylum at the American consulate in Chengdu with information about the involvement of Bo Xilai and his wife Gu Kailai in the murder of British businessman Neil Heywood who had financial ties to the couple. In the fallout of the Wang Lijun Incident, Bo was removed as the CPC Committee secretary of Chongqing and was expelled from the Communist Party. In 2013, Bo was found guilty of corruption, and embezzlement, and was stripped of all his assets, and sentenced to life imprisonment at Qincheng Prison.
- "Señor X"- Felipe Gonzaléz is a Spanish politician who was the General-Secretary of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) from 1974 to 1997 and Prime Minister of Spain from 1982 to 1996. Although he was a social democrat and governed democratically in most regions of Spain, in the Basque Country region he had a rather authoritarian attitude, where under the nickname "Señor X" he secretly created the "GAL", which were police death squads with the aim of destroying the terrorist organization ETA. The GAL became very infamous for murdering various political opponents and terrorizing the Basque population.
Emmerson Mnangagwa is the current President of Zimbabwe, former Vice President and former Minister of Defence, Justice, State Security, Rural Housing, former president of parliament and former guerrilla, in addition to being co-founder of "The Crocodile Gang", in which he committed several crimes, reason for his arrest in 1965-1975. He also helped Mugabe in the establishment of the Republic of Zimbabwe, being a member of ZANU. He is also accused of leading the Gukurahundi massacres, in which between 3,750-30,000 people died, even though he denies his participation, he said in an interview that the rebels were either insects or cockroaches and that the government should carry an insecticide. He was also accused of an attempted coup against Mugabe in 2007, but some analysts say this would discredit him and he remained in office.
When he came to power, he promised to serve all citizens, restore the economy and reduce corruption, he also promised to put Zimbabwe in a prominent position in the world. Under his rule, he compensated white Zimbabweans who lost their land under Mugabe, created a black indigenous entrepreneurship program, and in 2020, Zimbabwe had an economic freedom growth of 2.7 points in 2020, even a decline in 2022 ( the world at large as well). He has tried to improve relations with the EU, UN, Commonwealth and UK, but Biden's US imposes more sanctions for human rights harm. There was an assassination attempt in 2018 and there was repression against protests in 2019 because of the increase in fuel prices.
- Eduard Shevardnadze was a Georgian politician and diplomat who governed Georgia for several non-consecutive periods from the 1970s-1980s as the First Secretary of Georgian Communist Party of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic and as President of Georgia from 1995 until his resignation in 2003.
As First Secretary, Shevardnadze started several economic reforms, which would spur economic growth in the republic despite the nationwide economic stagnation that plagued the Soviet Union. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev appointed Shevardnadze to the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs and would play a crucial role in forming the Soviet's new foreign policy under the Gorbachev era. He negotiated nuclear arms treaties with the United States, helped end the war in Afghanistan, allowed the reunification of Germany, and withdrew Soviet forces from Eastern Europe and from the Chinese border. His western-friendly foreign policy put him at odds with Soviet hardliners who saw him as a sellout to the west.
In the aftermath of the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991, Shevardnadze returned to the newly independent Georgia and became the country's second 2nd head of the state in 1995. His presidency was marked by rampant corruption and accusations of nepotism as was the case in all post-communist countries of the former Eastern bloc at the time.
Shevardnadze also faced separatist conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia and the first Chechen war which damaged Georgia's relations with Russia, which accused Shevardnadze of harboring Chechen guerrillas and in apparent retaliation supported Georgian separatists of the aforementioned separatist regions. Georgia-Russia relations were worsened by Shevardnadze's US-friendly foreign policy and strategic alliance with NATO which saw him as a counterbalance to Russian influence in the Transcaucasus.
Eduard Shevardnadze resigned following the 2003 Rose Revolution motivated by the rampant corruption in his administration and electoral fraud in the 2003 presidential election.
- Kassym-Jomart Tokayev is a Kazakh politician and diplomat who is currently serving as the President of Kazakhstan since 12 June 2019 following the resignation of the country's former President and dictator Nursultan Nazarbayev.
Throughout his presidency, he has enacted several reforms including increasing workers' salaries, reducing corruption, abolishing capital punishment, and decentralizing the local government.
Despite some positive reforms Tokayev's government has maintained much of Nazarbayev's authoritarianism. This was seen during the 2022 Kazakh unrest, also known as "Bloody January", when a series of massive protests broke out in Kazakstan after a sudden sharp increase in liquefied gas prices following the lifting of a government-enforced price cap on 1 January 2022. The demonstrations quickly turned into violent riots, fueled by rising dissatisfaction with the government and economic inequality. Tokayev responded with a state of emergency and called for military intervention by the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) – a military alliance consisting of Russia and other former Soviet States. Tokayev ordered troops to use deadly force against protesters, authorizing instructions to "shoot to kill" without warning at anyone demonstrating, calling protesters "bandits and terrorists." Up to 227 people were killed and several thousand were arrested.
After a week of violent unrest and brutal crackdowns, President Tokayev promised reform and acknowledged public discontent over income inequality, and informed that the vehicle gas prices caps of 50 tenge per litre had been restored for 6 months.
Main Article: Kemalism
Personality and Character
SocAuth believes very much that welfare is something meant to be handled very seriously. He wants to do good with it but takes a very hardline, paternalistic, approach to the common citizens. He believes whatever he does will help the populace from poverty and improve national living standards no matter how good or bad it turns out, often giving him the impression of being ¨autocratic¨ and a strict, ¨always on the job¨ character. He likes to criticize other welfarist ideologies, but likes their intentions. He also hates far-left ideologies such as Marxism-Leninism, Maoism, Hoxhaism, and Left Communism for their endless marxist dogma. He is critical of Neoconservatism of sabotaging him in various countries, though.
- His cultural and economic views tend to vary a lot, but he usually wants an economic model resembling that of Social Capitalism. He pretty much doesn´t care much of other economic systems as long as they keep their regulations in check.
- He can be seen eating ice cream with Patcon.
How to Drawthe flag of Social Authoritarianism is the same as the flag of Social Democracy, but with a black V-shaped pattern on it, which in polcompball symbolizes authoritarianism.
- Draw a ball.
- Draw 2 black diagonal lines at the sides.
- Fill the outsides in black and the inside in red.
- Draw a white rose in the red portion.
Add the eyes and you're done!
- Welfarism - The carrot...
- Authoritarianism - ...And the stick!
- Longism - Good chap wants to share the wealth.
- Bismarckism - My first iteration and a good man all around.
- Monarcho-Socialism - The more moderate ones are basically me with a crowned monarch.
- National Syndicalism - May the state prompt your unions?
- Left-Wing Populism - Cool ideas, now embrace the state!
- Kemalism - My republican son.
- Tridemism - Based welfarism and authoritarianism. Shame that you lost control of the Mainland.
- State Capitalism - Love you bro, just take the welfare pill already.
- Welfare Chauvinism - You are a bit too liberal, and a bit too nationalistic, but I still like your beliefs.
- Saadehism - Good friend from Syria.
- Arab Socialism, Ba'athism - Based social progressivism, anti-communism, and one-party dictatorship as the end goal. What's there not to like about you guys?
- Titoism - One of the few based commies.
- Castroism - Same as above.
- Social Corporatism - See? 3rd positionism is better than Marxism. We don't need class struggle.
- Peronism - Me but in Argentina!
- Paternalistic Conservatism - Based, even though some of your modern followers are too democratic.
- Authoritarian Democracy - Best type of democracy ever existed.
- Arab Socialism & Ba'athism - Incredibly based Arabic counterparts.
- Marxism-Leninism - Revolution? Communism? Cringe! But on the other hand many of my followers were revolutionaries (Atatürk, Sun Yat-sen, Robespierre, etc..) and I like Castro and Tito despite being Communists, also Velasco liked you and so does Lukashenko, but NO, I will not get Marx's approval because his theories are outdated and insane. Otto Grotewohl even willingly merged eastern SPD with KPD, but sadly Pieck killed many ex-SPD members.
- Nordic Model - Way too moderate but Tage Erlander was based and I'm sure your Danish version will turn into me over time.
- Juche - I like that you work with KSDP, but you treat them like a puppet and don't them take control.
- Social Democracy - The democracy part is kinda stupid. What if opposition undoes your progress and owerthrows you? WEAK!
- Democratic Socialism - You're doing a better job than your brother, but "democracy" part is still dumb.
- Progressivism - Apparently he likes you. You're ok I guess.
- Conservatism - Meh, sure, whatever.
- Social Liberalism - Sometimes my old pal, to make sure everyone keeps their liberties we must protect liberty!
By violating liberty
- Neoconservatism - Truman and Mashall were based AF. The Marshall Plan was a brilliant idea to protect Europe from the rise of communism and it helped social authoritarian countries like Kemalist Turkey. However, you really need to stop attempting to coup every leader of the third world who tries to nationalize their country's resources for his people. What you did to Mosaddegh among others was unforgivable. At least Thaksin and Shevardnadze like you.
- Neoliberalism - I dislike your presence. You hate the poor by cutting off welfare, you push the free market against countries´ closed trade even when they don´t want it, and global trade affects economies that are planned or central. But, my American and European followers are willing to compromise with you, just make it fair.
- Corporatism - Why are you fascist?
- Social Libertarianism - You're on thin ice.
- State Liberalism - Capitalism and Authoritarianism are both pretty cool but calm it with neoliberalism a bit. I do admit that Thaksin is close to you.
- Authoritarian Conservatism - We can be great partners except when you team up with neoliberals.
- Authoritarian Capitalism - We both want an authoritarian capitalist government and share hatred for communism and democracy, but why do you hate poor people so much?!
- Batistaism - You had such promise but why did you ruin it all during your second presidency? I'm no commie but Castro was right to overthrow you.
- Maoism - Mostly bad but Bo Xilai claimed to be you and Thai royalists accuse Thaksin of waging a Maoist People's war against the monarchy through the red shirt movement. Also, I have to thank you for giving Soong Ching-ling a position in China.
- Dengism - Dismantled China's welfare state on a national level but at least some of your followers such as Chen Liangyu and Bo Xilai implemented welfare in the big cities.
- Khrushchevism and Brezhnev Doctrine - The Soviet Union was cringe but the so-called "anti-revisionist" commies accuse you two of being me and you were indeed preferable to Stalin. Considering how Russia how turned out under Yeltsin it's no wonder why many Russians are nostalgic for the time when you were in charge. I also have to thank Khrushchev for recognizing the importance of neutral countries and supporting Nasser.
- Network Monarchism - You got some neat ideas but why do you hate Thaksin?
- Fascism - Look, I know we both have similar economics and are both authoritarian. He tells me not to trust you.
- Imperialism - Most of my followers are on the left and fought to reclaim their homeland but Edward Colston and Chris Patten were based so I guess you ain't all bad.
- Third Way - Civically and economically too moderate, but at least both Blair and Clinton increased police power. But Thaksin and Shevardnadze were perfect. And plus, political comprise could improve the economy.
- Mandelaism - Too democratic and liberal for my taste but you did show admiration for authoritarian welfare states like Castroist Cuba and Gaddafi's Libya.
- Liberal Democracy - Kind of cringe and the rejection of authority is bad, but some of my more democratic variants like Tridemism and Kemalism likes you.
- Xi Jinping Thought - Based Shanghai lockdown, alliance with Duterte and your push for “Common Prosperity” sounds promising, but why did you have to purge Bo Xilai?!
- Anti-Authoritarianism - Damn you! I gave you welfare, ain't that enough? You want freedom of speech and democracy, as well, you spoiled brat?
Why does so many AntiAuths idolize Thaksin
- Left Communism - As much as I despise Stalin, Mao, Hoxha, etc. I must admit they at least got things done unlike you. Also, you should stop saying that I am Marxism–Leninism!
- National Socialism - How about we send genocidal social darwinist scums like you to death camps?
Ignore that Lukashenko spoke fondly of you once
- National Capitalism - You too.
- National Bolshevism - The ideology that ended Sanationism.
- Brazilian Integralism - Galinha Verde you will get purged.
- Libertarianism - Can't you see economic paternalism triumphs over economic liberalism?
- Anarcho-Communism - Direct democracy? Anarchy? Marxism? Cringe! You're idiotic.
- Anarcho-Capitalism - This is why I don't trust free markets.
- Agorism - Stop selling drugs before I send in the death squads.
- Marxism - Your theories are outdated as shit and revolution is pure dogma. Plus, welfare helps the workers.
- Luxemburgism - You had it comming. SPD did nothing wrong!
- Trotskyism - World revolution is cringe.
- Hoxhaism - Don't blame me, Hoxha, your tyranny is over and I shall lead Albania to glory.
- Marxism–Leninism–Maoism - F**k you for trying to overthrow me in the Philippines, Turkey, and Peru, now get into your cells/gunpoint, terrorist scumbags!
- National Democracy - Yes, Dmowski, I staged a coup and prevented you from getting to power. What you gonna do about it?
- Yeltsinism - The Soviet Union was cringe but you made things way worse than before. One of the good things Putin did was take down you.
- Ernesto Geisel
- Getúlio Vargas
- Rafael Franco
- Rodrigo Duterte
- Habib Bourguiba
- Luis Muñoz Marín
- Emomali Rahmon
- Thaksin Shinawatra
- Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
- Bo Xilai
- Brazilian Labour Party
- Revolutionary Febrerista Party
- APRA (historical)
- Socialist Destourian Party
Authoritarian Third Way
Credit: u/bruno-radical, Source
Credit: Kumerleon123, Source
- ↑ Referring the people who are affiliated with traditional social liberal or social democratic parties but with social authoritarian tendencies
- ↑ Tito and Castro are exceptions though.
- ↑ https://edition.cnn.com/2016/09/30/asia/duterte-hitler-comparison/index.html
- ↑ https://www.upi.com/Archives/1995/11/27/Belarus-leader-defends-Hitler-praise/9348817448400/
- ↑ The latter term is a political derogatory term in Thailand created by anti-Thaksin activist, Dr Teerayut Bunmee of the Faculty of Sociology and Anthropology, Thammasat University.
- ↑ There are several conspiracy theories circulating in Thailand that Thaksin Shinawatra was the reincarnation of King Taksin the Great, who seek revenge towards the Chakri Dynasty for overthrowing him during the Thonburi era
- ↑ Ideology of 'Amanat' has a part of environmentalism and social conservatism
- ↑ https://www.history.com/news/woodrow-wilson-racial-segregation-jim-crow-ku-klux-klan
- ↑ American Socialism: WWI and Central Economic Planning by Casual Historian
- ↑ Only during his 1st Presidency
- ↑ 
- ↑ 
- ↑ Only in his final years.
- ↑ https://journals.open.tudelft.nl/iphs/article/download/2722/2933/7660
- ↑ Despite Francisco Morales-Bermúdez's coup d'etat in 1975, the government would not officially abandon its leftist agenda until early 1976, and even after that, the Velascoist economic model partially remained although somewhat more capitalist.