Pan-Nationalism (PanNat) is a non-quadrant ideology that believes in transcending traditional boundaries of basic national identities, in order to create a "higher" pan-national identity, based on various common denominators. This pan-national identity could be a certain ethnicity, race, religion, geographical area, or a language. Sometimes they just want a group's "historic land" back (however this could be seen as Irredentism). The pan-nationalist landmass can vary in size and shape.
Pan-Nationalism differs from Irredentism in a sense that irredentism envisions the annexation of independent states or some of their territories under its rule while PanNat regards a union of two or more sovereign states that share a common feature (eg. culture, ethnicity, language).
Variants and their history
Berberism, also known as Amazighism, is an Islamic political ideology and movement throughout North Africa. The movement is very Jihadist in some of it's forms. The idea seeks to unite all Berbers/Tuaregs under one single unified banner.
In Algeria, Berber Separatists have proposed several times an independent Berber state called Berberia. On top of this, the Kabylian Movement for Self-Determination also seeks a lesser Berber state called Kabylia.
In the Second Libyan Civil War, various Berber Militias have popped up and have attempted to gain the independence of a Berber state in the southern half of the country.
In Mali, Berberism is big in the on-going Malian Civil War under the Azawad. Azawad's Berberism is led by two main movements; Coordination of the Azawad Movement and the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad.
In Morocco, a separatist Amazigh movement exists: Rif.
In Niger, various Berber nationalist groups have appeared such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the Sahara.
Pan-Africanism is an ideological and political movement, first aimed at uniting Africans to combat racial oppression (late 19th - early 20th century); since the 1950s - a movement for the liberation of all the peoples of Africa, the unification of liberation forces in the fight against colonialism and racism.
Pan-Africanism began to take shape at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. at the initiative of Black intellectuals from the United States and the West Indies, who demanded an end to racial discrimination and the granting of civil and political rights to black people.
The foundations of modern pan-Africanism were laid by the 5th Pan-African Congress in Manchester , 1945). People like William Du Bois, Kwame Nkrumah, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Jomo Kenyatta and other figures of the African liberation movement all took an active part. The Manchester Congress outlined a practical program for the political liberation of Africa. By setting the task of liberating all the peoples of Africa, regardless of their racial affiliation, the pan-African movement contributed to the general rise of the liberation struggle on the African continent. After the conquest of political independence by most African countries, the pan-African idea began to be embodied in the establishment of comprehensive inter-African ties and in the support of movements seeking the elimination of colonial and racist regimes.
After African countries gained independence, pan-Africanism was associated with the idea developed by the first president of Ghana Kwame Nkrumah in the 1960s, in order to create a single state on the African continent - the United States of Africa. After his death in 1972, Lybian ruler Muammar Gaddafi assumed the mantle of leader of the Pan-Africanist movement and became the most outspoken advocate of African Unity.
There are two flags used to represent this movement: Green-Yellow-Red, based off the Rastafari movement colors of Ethiopian flag (many independent states have adopted this color scheme, seeing as Ethiopia was the only uncolonized African country), and Red-Black-Green which is rather a flag of Black Nationalism than Pan-African movement.
Pan-Americanism is a movement towards commercial, social, economic, military and political cooperation among the North and South American and to some extent, Caribbean nations.
Pan-Americanism existed as a series of Inter-American Conferences held in Panama (1826), Lima (1847 and 1864) and Santiago (1856). The main purpose of these meetings was to organize a common defense. The first modern Pan-American Conference was held in Washington, D.C. (1889-1890), with all american countries represented, with the exception of Dominican Republic. Dispute arbitration and tariff adjustment agreements were adopted and the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics was established, which became the Pan-American Union. Subsequent meetings were held in various cities in Latin America.
Currently, the practice of pan-Americanism is carried out by the Organization of American States (OAS), created on April 30, 1948.
Now the concept of continental integration is increasingly perceived through the prism of the ideas of the unity of Latin American and Caribbean countries and peoples, excluding the United States and Canada, such as the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States.
Pan-Arabism is a movement for the unification of peoples and nations of the Arab world, spanning from North Africa to Arabian peninsula. The movement is closely linked to Arab nationalism, according to which the Arabs form a single nation. It peaked in the 1950's and 1960's and tends to be secular and sometimes socialist, and strongly opposes colonialism and Western political activity in the Arab world.
The cradle of Pan-Arabism was the Arabian Peninsula. In 1916, the Sharif of Mecca Hussein bin Ali Al-Hashimi founded the Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz with its capital in the city of Jeddah, which was absorbed by Najd and gave rise to modern nation of Saudi Arabia. In the wake of Arab solidarity, the struggle for the independence of the states of North Africa also took place after the end of World War II. In 1958, Egypt and Syria founded the United Arab Republic, however due to disagreements between the leaders, the country did not last long. However, their Pan-Arabic Patriotic Anthem, Al Watan Al Akbar (or El Watan El Akbar) is a banger still to this day.
Pan-Arab ideology is supported by some political parties, notably Ba'ath. The most prominent figures of the Pan-Arab movement include Gamal Abdel Nasser, Hafez al-Assad, Saddam Hussein, Yasser Arafat, Muammar Gaddafi, etc.
Pan-Asianism is an ideological and political movement that calls for the unity of the Asian peoples. It originated in the Japanese Empire during the reign of Emperor Showa.
The peak of Pan-Asianism occurred during the Second World War. Japanese propaganda instilled Pan-Asian ideology in the Asian territories occupied by Japanese troops. For greater efficiency, Japan has contributed to the formation of de jure independent states in these territories, such as the state of Burma, the Vietnamese Empire, Manchukuo, Azad Hind, and others. The main Pan-Asian slogan Asia for Asians called for the struggle of indigenous Asian peoples against British and American colonialism. Although the pan-Asianism ideology stems from Japan's own attempt to compete with, and eventually prevail over, Western powers in the Meji Restoration, critics assert that pan-Asianism was employed as a propaganda tactic to encourage citizens in occupied territories to accept Japanese imperialism.
The idea of "Asian values" is somewhat of a resurgence of Pan-Asianism. One foremost enthusiast of the idea was the former Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew. In India, Ram Manohar Lohia dreamed of a united socialist Asia.
Pan-Сelticism is a political, social and cultural movement in support of unification, solidarity and cooperation between the inhabitants of the Celtic regions (those of Gaelic and Brittonic origin) and all modern Celts of Northwest Europe. Some Pan-Celtic organizations advocate for the separation of the Celtic regions from the United Kingdom and France and the creation of either a united federal state or some form of confederation - as a rule, such organizations widely support Irish , Scottish, Welsh, Breton, Cornish and Manx forms of Nationalism.
In Central and Western Europe, a significant proportion of the inhabitants have Celtic roots. It is believed that the surviving language of the Celtic family is considered the "soul" of Celticism, and it is for this reason that such regions like Galicia in the northwestern Spain were not included in the Celtic League.
For about a century (from 1838 to 1939), the Pan-Celtic movement was one of the most influential nationalist movements. The first Pan-Celtic gatherings were held at festivals of Celtic culture such as Gorsedd and Eisteddfod, in 1917 the International Celtic Congress was formed, which is held annually. Since then, the Celtic League has been considered to be the face of the Pan-Celtic movement. Nowadays pan-Celticists prefer cultural exchange rather than political cooperation, as various pan-Celtic music, art and literature festivals are organized.
Main article: European Federalism
See also: Bismarckism and National Socialism
Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea. Pan-Germanists originally sought to unify all the German-speaking people – and possibly also Germanic-speaking peoples in a single nation-state known as Großdeutschland.
The ideas of Pan-Germanism originated in the early 19th century and were the result of the Napoleonic Wars. These wars have established a new movement that emerged during the French Revolution - Nationalism. Young reformers sought to unite all German lands.
Until the 1860s, Prussia and Austria were the two most powerful German-speaking states. They tried to expand their influence and territory. The Austrian Empire was a multiethnic state where the Germans did not have an absolute numerical advantage; the creation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was one result of the growing nationalism of other ethnic groups in the empire. Prussia under Bismarck used the ideas of Pan-Germanism to reunite the German lands with the support of the National liberal party. The unification of Germany took place in 1871 after the proclamation of Kaiser Wilhelm I as chairman of the Union of German-Speaking States. Many Germans living outside the new empire would have preferred to live under its rule or in an ethnically homogeneous German state, but this desire was met with opposing wishes from other ethnic groups.
After the WWI the influence of German-speaking elites in Europe was severely crippled. Germany was significantly reduced in size following the Treaty of Versailles. Austria-Hungary was divided and Austria adopted the name "German Austria" (Deutschösterreich) and voted overwhelmingly in favor of unification with Germany. This name and unification with Germany were banned by the Allies after the war.
The Nazis in Germany had hoped to unite all German-speaking lands into one country, so in 1938 they have annexed Austria and then Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia. After the war Germany lost most of its territorial gains, including Silesia, Eastern Pomerania, East Prussia and the city of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia), and was divided between Allied-occupied West driven by the social market economy and Soviet-occupied socialist East. The capital city of Berlin was also divided, which brought tensions between the two, so the Soviets have built a wall around the city. Eventually the wall was torn down and both West and East have formed one country in 1990.
In Austria, after both world wars there were third camp groups that advocated for the reunification with Germany. After WW2 however, the idea of reunification became unpopular due to association with Nazism.
Pan-Hispanism refers to a union of Spanish-speaking countries, of a cultural, economic and political nature. The movement is most prominent within the Hispanic (Iberian) and Latin Americas. It also has some traction in the Philippines in Asia, Equatorial Guinea and the Occidental Sahara, but it is weak and/or almost non-existent.
After most of Latin American countries gained independence from Spain, the idea of mutual integration appeared in the new nations to counter the United States. This idea of Pan-Hispanism not only does not materialize, but in addition to the new nations of Peru, Gran Colombia, or the Federal Republic of Central America which end up dividing into other smaller states, which in return, in many cases, end up being confronted in border conflicts. But the idea of unification will remain latent in local ideology, especially in South America.
A modern Pan-Hispanist movement appears with the arrival of socialist ideologies in the region. This movement is marked by the workers' struggles that took place in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century, with successes such as the Cuban revolution and the revolutionary marches of Che Guevara. In its ideology are many egalitarian ideas, such as re-establishing relations between the Hispanic peoples.
In Spain, following the fall of Francoism, relations with Latin America have been at their best. As the sole Hispanic representative in the European Union, Spain defends the interests of Hispanic America in its international politics. In addition, more particularly from the 1990s, Spain considerably increased its investments in Hispanic America, becoming the main socio-commercial player in the area. The Spanish budget intended for the development of underprivileged regions of the globe is mainly intended for the poorest countries in Hispanic America, and Spain receives most of the South American immigration, mainly from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.
The advent of Indigenism and radical movements that seek to "decolonize" Hispanic American countries such as Neozapatismo, Ethnocacerism and Bolivarianism has led to the surge of reactionary groups that believe in the restoration of cultural ties between the countries that once belonged to the Spanish Empire. These groups think about the process of conquest of the Spanish Empire as ultimately civilization (under the mission of spreading the Gospel around the world) instead of exploitative, and most of the alleged negative aspects of it would be the result of a negative propaganda campaign called the "Black legend" in order to sever the historic ties of its overseas territories. Many of these groups believe that the indigenist narrative should be fought by restoring classic Spanish ethics and institutions, sometimes believing that a Catholic Theocracy would be best.
Despite everything that could lead to a pan-Hispanic supranational organization, it is not happening in the near future, not just because of the Hispano-American countries refuse to see themselves under an excessive foreign influence again, but also because of Spain, which finds itself more and more integrated in the middle of the European countries, which would make it difficult for it to belong in a second organization.
Pan-Indianism or Pan-Amerindianism, is a philosophical and political approach promoting unity, and to some extent cultural homogenization, among different Native American, First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) groups in the Americas regardless of tribal distinctions and cultural differences.
Pan-Iranism is an ideology prevalent mainly in Iran, whose supporters advocate the unification of the Iranic peoples living in the Iranian highlands and other regions that have significant features of Iranian cultural influence. Other than Persians, they include Kurds, Tajiks, Pashtuns, Baloch people and Ossetians as the most prevalent Iranian peoples. Almost all followers of Pan-Iranism also include Azeris in their ideology, even though they speak a Turkic-based language, they partly are of Iranian origin according to Pan-Iranists.
Pan-Latinism is an ideology that promotes the union of Romance-speaking peoples.
Supposedly, it had its origins in Italy as it is the birthplace of the Latin people. The term Pan-Latinism was coined by Torres de Caicedo.
This perspective first materialized in France, mainly due to the influence of Michel Chevalier who compared the "Latin" peoples of America with the "Anglo-Saxon" peoples who lived in these territories. The French writer Stendhal regarded "Latinism" as an imperial idea that the Latins should lead their non-Latin neighbors. This perspective was later adopted by Napoleon III, who declared his support for the cultural unity of the Latin peoples and presented France as the modern leader of the Latin peoples.
A more democratic and confederal form of pan-Latinism emerged through the influence of Occitan French figure Frédéric Mistral, who advocated regional autonomy for Occitania in France. He also advocated pan-Latinism after he had contacted Catalans who wanted the autonomy of Catalonia and union between Latins. He strongly influenced Jean Charles-Brun, the latter in turn impressing Mistral by publishing Le régionalisme. Charles-Brun campaigned for international Latinism and the establishment of a democratic "Latin confederation", while rejecting the imperialist idea of creating a "Latin empire."
Pan-Latinism was an important component of Italian fascism and was used in conjunction with Romanitas practices to promote Italian racial superiority.
Pan-Iberism, also known as Iberian Federalism, is an ideological concept whose task is to deepen relations between Spain and Portugal in all possible areas of co-operation in any form and at any level. The doctrine of Pan-Iberism focuses on the cultural community of the peoples of the two countries, their continuous and stable mutual influence throughout both countries' history. These concepts promote economic and political integration, do not question the authenticity of each of the countries, but reject the advisability of any institutional restrictions on the joint activities of entities in Spain and Portugal.
Both countries have participated in history, with a coherent and differentiated evolution from the rest of Europe. From the Roman, Visigothic and Arab domination, to the formation of the medieval Christian kingdoms and the common ideal of the Reconquista based on the double objective of the expulsion of Islam and the unification of the kingdoms under the same crown, continuing through the Age of Exploration, the dynastic union of the three crowns of the Iberian Peninsula under the same sovereign of the House of Habsburg, the Peninsular War, the Quadruple Alliance of 1834 against the Carlist and Miguelist (Liberal) wars, the Iberian Pact of 1942, and ending with the admition of both countries into the European Union.
There are also some iberian socialist theorists and thinkers who supported the idea of a federation between the two nations , this people vary from some members of insurrection movements in Spain, intellectuals from both sides, politicians and of course CNT-FAI.
Pan-Oceanianism is a movement that seeks greater economic, social and military cooperation among the countries of Oceania. The most prominent example of pre-existing pan-nationalism among the countries of Oceania is the Pacific Islands Forum, an intergovernmental organization that seeks to represent the interests of its members and increase cooperation among them. Closer Economic Relations (CER) free trade agreement between the Governments of New Zealand and Australia allow the free trade of most goods and services between the two nations without the tariff barriers or export incentives. The Melanesian Spearhead Group is a more recent trade treaty governing the four Melanesian States of Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Fiji.
For the political pan-nordism: Nordic Model
Pan-Scandinavianism is a literary and political movement for the comprehensive unification of the Scandinavian countries. Pan-Scandinavism and Pan-Nordicism are interchangeable definitions of the literary, linguistic and cultural movement, which aims to spread the idea of a common Nordic past, cultural heritage, Scandinavian mythology, one linguistic root - the Old Norse language; the movement led to the creation of joint periodicals.
Pan-Scandinavism includes countries like Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
Pan-Nordism in addition to the previously mentioned three countries, also includes Finland and Iceland.
The movement was initiated by students from Danish and Swedish universities in the 1840s, with its center in Scania. Initially, the political elites of the two countries, including the absolute monarchs Christian VIII of Denmark and Charles XIV of Sweden, distrusted the movement. Therefore, the Danish police kept the supporters of this movement under close surveillance.
Hans Christian Andersen became a supporter of the movement after visiting Sweden in 1837 and promised himself to write a poem that would demonstrate the connection between Swedes, Danes and Norwegians. In July 1839, during a visit to the island of Funen, Andersen first wrote the text of the poem Jeg er en Skandinav (I am a Scandinavian), which became the national Scandinavian anthem and in which Andersen tried to convey "the beauty of the Nordic spirit, the way the three sister nations have gradually grown together". Composer Otto Lindblad put poetry to music and the composition was published in January 1840. It reached the peak of its popularity in 1845, after which it was rarely mentioned.
Pan-Nordism has its roots in pan-scandinavism, but the ideology has been extended to include all the Nordic nations as well as the three autonomous territories of both the Faroe Islands and Greenland of Denmark as well as Åland islands in Finland. The desire is a much closer collaboration than it is today. Based on a common culture and values, a new union is envisaged, preferably according to the same model as the EU.
It finds some support in environments that are critical of the EU, but as of today, it is a rarely mentioned political alternative; No pan-nordic union has been on the political agenda in any of the Nordic countries, although Eva-Kristin Pedersen in 2009 promoted the idea of a new Kalmar Union in the Minerva magazine.
Pan-Slavism is a movement that emerged in the mid-19th century and a political ideology that promotes the integrity and unity of the Slavic peoples. Its main influence occurred in the Balkans, where non-Slavic empires ruled the southern Slavs for centuries. These were mainly the Byzantine Empire, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
In the modern times, with the dissolution of federal states such as Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia and the problem of Russian dominance in any proposed all-Slavic organization, the idea of pan-Slavic unity is mostly considered dead in the Western world. Also, the appeals to Pan-Slavism are often made by various ultranationalistic movements in Russia, Serbia and notably by the Kotlebist party in Slovakia.
By contrast, Belarusian and Ukrainian pan-slavists are anti-nationalist, with them prefering Russian over their native language.
Southern Slavs and Yugoslavia
See also: Titoism
In the Balkans, Pan-slavists would often turn to Russia for support. The southern Slavic movement advocated for the independence of the Slavic peoples within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire. Some Serbian intellectuals tried to unite all the southern Balkan slavs, whether they were Catholic ( Croats and Slovenes), Orthodox ( Serbs, Bulgarians, also Montenegrins and modern-day Northern Macedonians) or even Muslim ( Bosniaks) as a "South Slavic nation with three faiths".
After the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918, Yugoslavism gained a new political and state dimension. However, a key step towards the political redefinition of Yugoslavism was made only in 1929, when the official name of the state was changed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. From that moment on, all the inhabitants of Yugoslavia became Yugoslavs on the basis of their citizenship. At the same time, in addition to the national state, Yugoslavia gained a special ethno-national significance in the form of the ideology of Integral Yugoslavism, which was based on the thesis of the existence of a single nation. Integral Yugoslavism was based on the denial of the existence of separate ethnicities, which were reduced to a subnational level and declared as mere tribes within a single Yugoslav nation. The policy of Integral Yugoslavism was actively pursued in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from the introduction of the 6 January dictatorship in 1929, until the assassination of King Alexander I in 1934, after which it fell into crisis, and experienced a complete collapse between 1939 and 1941.
During the Second World War, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia propagated a special form of federalist Yugoslavia which, after 1945, under the slogan of brotherhood and unity, became the backbone of state policy in the new socialist Yugoslavia, which was organized as a federal state. Although the federalist concept of Yugoslavia was proclaimed as an official state and party policy, significant differences and divisions emerged among the Yugoslav communists over time between proponents of federalist centralism and proponents of political decentralization. During the political crisis that lasted from 1966 to 1974, the second current prevailed, and after 1980, following the death of Josip Broz Tito, the first proponents of confederal Yugoslavia appeared, who advocated the transformation of Yugoslavia into a confederation of sovereign republics.
Yugoslavia suffered a heavy blow during the political crisis that led to the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990's, which permanently compromised the concept of any political unity of the Yugoslav peoples. Serbia and Montenegro's attempt to preserve a narrow Yugoslavia after 1992 through the creation of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ended in failure. The narrowed political concept of Yugoslavia was formally abandoned in 2003, when the FRY was reorganized into a state union called Serbia and Montenegro. Eventually, both Serbia and Montenegro became their own separate states in 2006.
Western Slavs and Czechoslovakia
19th century Pan-Slavism has influenced Poland. It inspired sympathy for other oppressed Slavic peoples seeking to restore independence. While Pan-Slavism fought against Austria-Hungary for the freedom of the South Slavs, the Poles inspired other Slavic peoples for the liberation struggle with their insubordination. It was the melody and motive of the Polish national liberation song called Mazurka Dobrowski that served as the basis for the creation of a number of Slavic hymns and the pan-Slavic anthem "Hey, Slavs!"
The creation of the Pan-Slavic Federation was promoted by Roman Dmowski, a Polish neo-Slavist and one of the fathers of modern independent Poland. After Poland gained independence in 1918, they to some extent considered Pan-Slavism as a vector of political development, in particular, there were plans to create a Central European Federation - Intermarium, which would unite the majority of Slavic peoples, with the exception of Soviet Russia. During the communist era of Polish statehood, Pan-Slavic rhetoric was used as a tool to promote friendship with the USSR to justify its control over the country. The issue of Pan-Slavism was not part of the main political agenda and was widely viewed as an ideology of Soviet influence.
Czechoslovakism appeared as early as the 19th century, its most notable ideologists were Bohuslav Tablic, Juraj Palkovič, Ján Kollár and Pavel Josef Šafařík. During the WWI it was the basis for the national liberation of Czechs and Slovaks and the basis for the creation of a common Czechoslovak state. The concept of Czechoslovakism was the most successful concept of liberating Czechs in the Czech lands and Slovaks in Slovakia from unequal position in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy based on Kollár's and Palacký's ideas of Czech and Slovak unity.
However, Czechoslovakism cannot be defined only as a concept of the origin of the Czechoslovak nation or tribe from defense and national tendencies, the idea had a supra-national meaning, which wanted to overcome the provincialism of environment and thought, wanted to change the excessive isolation and modesty of Czech or Slovak politics and democracy. After the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic, it became a state doctrine, which was enshrined in the constitution of 1920.
Not all Czechoslovaks supported this ideology. When the Czech Republic was occupied by Nazis before the World War 2, a Slovak Nazi puppet state was formed on the territory of Slovakia. Following the end of the war Czechoslovakia was reunited, but the ideology of a "single nation" was not fully restored. The end of this concept was the 1968 Constitution, which proclaimed Czechoslovakia a federation of two national republics.
In 1993 Czechoslovakia ceased to exist and two independent nations of Czech Republic and Slovakia formed shortly after.
Eastern Slavs and All-Russian nation
During the Revolution of 1848-49 in the Austrian Empire, Ukrainians in Galicia began to establish contacts with Slavic figures of the Austrian Empire, in particular, took part in the Slavic Congress in Prague (June 1848). Influenced by ideas from Russia, part of the Ukrainian intelligentsia embarked on the path of Russophilia, which was supported by Russian Panslavist circles.
Some of the leading Ukrainian intelligentsia of the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries, Mykhaylo Hrushevskyi in particular, openly opposed Pan-Slavism, seeing it as a threat to the national interests of the Ukrainian people.
Famous Ukrainian poet Ivan Franko has criticized Muscophiles (Russophiles) for their apostasy and treacherous position. In the article "Our Moscophilia" Ivan Franko noted that in its program the Ruthenian-Ukrainian Radical Party stands on national Ukrainian soil and nationalism, denying the accusations of Muscovite supporters of the party, of which he was the leader. This article recognizes the straightforward fact that that Ukrainians (Ruthenians) are different from both the Polish and Russians and should be classified as separate slavic people.
During the early Soviet era, Bolshevik teachings viewed Pan-slavism as a reactionary element previously used by the Russian Empire. As a result, the Bolsheviks saw this as contrary to their Marxist ideology. However, with the outbreak of World War II, the Stalinist government considered it necessary to use an all-Slavic policy, as a result of which in 1942, a Pan-Slavic Congress was held in Moscow.
The All-Russian nation can be seen as a chauvinist idea and it proclaims that Ukrainians and Belarusians are Russians and puts forward the ultimate goal of the state unification of the Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Russian peoples into a single Russian people.
The modern Russian neo-imperial geopolitical doctrine of "Russian world" is closely connected with the all-Russian nation idea.
Nowadays Russia has not used the Pan-Slavic doctrine in its foreign policy, at least officially. However, both Russian nationalists and some communists are playing the Russian cultural and linguistic influence card in order to promote the idea of union between the former Soviet republics, or even the restoration of the Soviet Union. Some parties like LDPR as well as the former National Bolshevik Party have even advocated to form a new Russian Empire.
Pan-Turkism is a doctrine in states inhabited by Turkic peoples, which is based on the idea of the need for their political consolidation on the basis of ethnic, cultural and linguistic community. Formed in the second half of the 19th century, the movement began among the Turkic people in the Crimean peninsula, who initially sought to unite with the Turks of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1804, Tatar theologian Ghabdennasir Qursawi wrote a treatise calling for the modernization of Islam. Qursawi was a Jadid and they encouraged critical thinking, supporting education and gender equality, and advocated tolerance for other faiths, Turkic cultural unity, and openness to Europe’s cultural legacy. The Jadid movement was founded in 1843 in Kazan, Russia. Its aim was a semi-secular modernization and educational reform, with a national (but not religious) identity for the Turkic peoples.
Pan-Turkism in the Russian Empire can also trace its roots goes back to Terciman (meaning Translator in Crimean Tatar), a Crimean Tatar newspaper which was published in 1883 in Bağçasaray (Bakhchysarai) by the all-Turkic Russian public figure, educator and publicist Ismail Gaspirali (Gasprinski). Terciman was eventually banned by the Bolsheviks in 1918. The first female editor and journalist among the Turkic people in Russia was Gasprinski's wife, Zukhra Akchurina. The idea of enlightenment found a response among the Crimean, Volga-Ural, Central Asian and Azerbaijani and even Russian intelligentsia and clergy.
As an ideology, Pan-Turkism was finally formed by the end of the 19th century. Pan-Turkism became one of the elements of the Young Turk ideology, as a result of which the Ottoman government provided assistance to various nationalist movements in Central Asia during the civil war of 1918-1921 in Russia. In 1923, Turkish journalist Ziya Gökalp published the book Basic principles of Turkism, which became the last and rather significant contribution to the ideology of Pan-Turkism.
After the so-called "Kemalist revolution", the ideas of Pan-Turkism were forgotten as the official ideology of the new Turkey, since Mustafa Kemal Atatürk took a course towards restructuring the country in a Western style. Some revival of the Pan-Turkic ideas took place after his death in 1938.
After Turkey's accession to NATO, these ideas regained relevance as a means of ideological struggle against the USSR, with the aim of tearing the republics of Central Asia and Azerbaijan away from it.
The collapse of the USSR created some conditions for the restoration of the Pan-Turkic movement. Turkey was no longer the sole Turkic nation, as independent states of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan all appeared in 1991.
In modern times, this idea is prevalent by some nationalist movements mainly in Turkey and Azerbaijan. Some Pan-Turkic movements and organizations are focusing on the economic integration of the sovereign Turkic states and hope to form an economic and political union similar to the European Union.
Pan-Uralism refers to a hypothetical political and cultural union between various Uralic peoples. They include Estonians, Finns, Hungarians, Sami (or Saami) as well as the ones that live in the regions of Northern and Western Russia, like Izhorians, Karelians, Khanti, Komi, Mansi, Mari, Samoyeds and Udmurts. Unfortunately, nothing much is known about this ideology as well as its ideologists.
The irredentist idea of Greater Finland may be considered as the closest equivalent to a pan-Uralic nation (or pan-Finno-Ugric for that matter).
Personality and Behavior
Pan-Nationalism's personality can vary depending on what pan-nationalist identity is being represented. He is also seen being very proud about his pan-nationalist nation. Pan-Europism would often be depicted as a supporter of Oswald Mosley and going about how "Europe lives & Marches on!", Pan-Scandinavism would often be depicted talking about the Kalmar-Union and really, really hating Gustav Vasa (Although, some personality traits are more consistent), Pan-Slavism would often be nostalgic about both Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia as well as really liking Russia. He is seen in comics dreaming about his pan-nationalist country finally becoming true. Pan-Africanism is very skeptical and wants better for Africa. loathes Zionism, and wants to kill it.
How to Draw
- Draw a ball
- Color the ball sky blue
- Draw the landmass of the ball white
- Color the territory the pan nationalist ideology would have orange
- Draw a hat to represent the pan nationalist ideology
- Draw eyes and then you're done!
- Populism - Left wing or right wing, we don't care! Our people must be united!
- Civic Nationalism (when aren't around) - Ethnicity this, racial bullshit that! Don't we all realize no matter what we are brothers with silimar cultures?
- Cultural Nationalism - A real patriot loves and preserve his culture!
- Racial Nationalism - For a united Europe! For a united Africa! For a united East Asia! For a united Arab world!
Kinda prefer Civnat over you
- Irredentism - Taking it to the extreme, aren't you?
- European Federalism - I really like this whole Unites States of Europe thing.
- Left-Wing Nationalism - Left-Wing or Right-Wing, it doesn't matter as long as you are nationalist.
- African Socialism - Keep on fighting, my brothers!
- Arab Socialism - United against western imperialists and Zionists!
- Gaddafism - Pan Arabic, Pan African and supports the two above? Based
- Titoism - Based Yugoslavia! RIP Tito..
- Tridemism - And Based China!
- Nordic Model - So damn close!
- Interculturalism - Forming a greater national identity out of many small ones? Yes please!
- Prometheism - All Eastern Europeans unite against Russian, German and Soviet imperialism!
Fall under the Polish yoke instead.
- Alter-Globalization - The only relatively good form of globalism that supports the struggles of culturally similar developing nations!
- Nationalism - I like nationalism, but you don't have your brothers inside the nation!
- Imperialism - On one hand, it is a good way to unite our brothers and build closer to a united "insert region/continent", BUT IT WAS ALSO YOU THAT DIVIDED AND OPPRESSED OUR BROTHERS IN MANY WAYS IN THE FIRST PLACET!!!
- Separatism - I often emerge as a result of you fighting imperialism, but you don't want to always unite with their brothers and you see me as "neo-imperialist" is ABSURD... wait, DON'T LEAVE MY NEWLY CREATED UNION NOOOOOO!
- Ethnic Nationalism - Expanding our ethnostate isn't really too bad nor good. Look at Hungary. Hungary has dozens of Hungarians living in Transylvania, Hungary also has Hungarians living in Carpathian Ruthenia, Vojvodina, and Slovakia. But on a geographic scale however, your motive of cleansing our brothers fears a ban on my name. Just look of what you done in Yugoslavia!
- National Liberalism - Calls me Imperialism
as if it's an insult lol. He helped me unify Germany and Italy in the past and his Austrian and Moldovian supporters share my ideas.
- Kemalism - You say you are hostile to me, but sometimes you speak of Turks abroad. I'm really having trouble understanding you.
- Showa Statism - Sure, Pan-Asianism is epic but I'm pretty sure that your version is just a facade for Japanese domination...
- Multiculturalism - Your views on culture aren't so bad maybe, but you're too internationalist! And you hate my nationalism! But they like you for some reason.
- Neoliberalism - You are pure evil!
Also you stole my flag
- Globalism - Fake globalism! You just want to take over!
- Cosmopolitanism - Cosmopolitanism is a pure fantasy of the globalists!
- World Federalism - There is no need to explain more of these bollocks.
Variants, their concepts and people
- Pan-European Nationalism
- British Unionism
- Chinese Unification
- One country, two systems
- Unification of Romania and Moldova
- Union State
- Korean Reunification
- Why Didn't the Arab World Unite? by History Matters
- What if the Slavic World united as a Single Country? Greater Slavia Alternate History by Masaman
- What if the Latin World United? Neo-Roman Empire by Masaman
- Why there is no Arab Superstate by CaspianReport
- Is The East African Federation a Good Idea? by h0ser
Credit: TheLegend2T, Source
Credit: u/fruitrollupgod, Source
- ↑ Donahue, Ray T.; Prosser, Michael H. (1 January 1997). Diplomatic Discourse: International Conflict at the United Nations – Addresses and Analysis. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9781567502916. Archived from the original on 20 April 2017 – via Google Books.