Kemalism, also called Ataturkism, is a nationalist, civically variable, secular and culturally progressive ideology that occupies a moderate and right position in the authoritarian left quadrant, and is the ideology of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. However, although Atatürk wanted an interpretation of Kemalism in his own time, he did not write a doctrine for this ideology. Modern day Kemalism has three main factions: Center-left (social-democratic), conservative and liberal Kemalism. All three factions belongs an electoral alliance called the ‘Nation Alliance’ nowadays to challenge Erdogan’s government. The support of historical variants such as Fascist Kemalism and Socialist Kemalism has now mostly diminished.
One day, in a dialogue with Atatürk, Kadri Karaosmanoğlu said:
My Pasha, this is a revolution party in all respects. The Revolution party, on the other hand, cannot walk without relying on an ideology or a doctrine.
If we write doctrine, we freeze and stay where we are.
In other words, Atatürk believed that the doctrines were fixed and lagged behind the times. For this reason, Atatürk created a body of ideas but organized it with certain practical principles. He did not write detailed doctrinal texts. But he also allowed it to be written. For this reason, there were many variants of Kemalism (even when Atatürk was alive). Later, these principles were added to the 1924 Constitution as the main principles of the state. Kemalism has had a strong cult of personality in Turkey centered around its founder since its foundation.
The six arrows of Kemalism represent Republicanism, Populism, Nationalism, Secularism (exclusion of ecclesiastical control and influence), Statism and Reformism.
Kemalism is the ideology of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and the founding ideology of the Republic of Turkey. The ideology was designed to help modernize Turkey and separate it from its Ottoman predecessor, these reforms include democracy, secularism, state support of the science, women’s rights, and free education.
The early roots of the ideology began during the early 19th-century Tanzimant reforms in the late years of the Ottoman Empire when the Empire was trying to stop its collapse, of course, this merely delayed the inevitable. After the Young Ottoman movement ditched Ottoman Nationalism ( Ottomanism) to stop the rising ethnic nationalism within the Empire in favor of Turkish nationalism becoming the Young Turks (no, not the American news tabloid) which sought to establish many things the Young Ottomans wanted to be established like a democracy. However, unlike the Young Ottomans, the Young Turks were in favour of secularism. The Young Turks inspired Atatürk greatly with their advocacy of democracy, Turkish nationalism, and secularism among other things. However, Ataturk was against their extreme ethnonationalism and ultranationalism and condemned the Armenian genocide. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the subsequent establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, Atatürk implemented these ideas as well as brought about more economically left reforms to the nation that the nation had never experienced before.
Ataturk launched the Turkish War of Independence and single-handily defeated western and Greek imperialist's scheme to break up Turkey into pieces by the Treaty of Sevres with the financial support and arms supplies of Lenin’s new Soviet republic. He subsequently abolished the Caliphate and initiated a series of legal, social, cultural, and political reforms that lifted Turkey from the backward theocratic and feudalistic Ottoman Empire into a modernized, progressive, and secular republic. Ataturk also introduced free education and universal healthcare and improved the living conditions of the peasants and the standards of workers. Ataturk also implemented a program of Turkification, known as “Citizens, Speak Turkish,” which aimed at encouraging ethnic minorities to speak Turkish and assimilate into the Turkish culture. However, they were allowed to speak their own language and practice their own culture as well. According to a survey by the Center for American Progress, 86% of Turks have a favorable view of Ataturk, and 52% have a very favorable view of him. This includes 80% of Islamist AKP voters and 61% of Kurdish nationalist HDP voters.
Shortly after Turkey was proclaimed as a republic, Ataturk endorsed the policy of peace at home, peace in the world, and restored its relationship with Britain and Greece. The New Turkish Republic amended all unequal tariff treaties that the Ottoman Empire had with foreign powers and forged a strong alliance with the USSR as both countries signed the friendship pact, the Treaty of Moscow in 1921, and a non-aggression pact in 1925. It also regained control of the Turkish Straits by 1936 with the Montreux Convention, which saw Turkey fully regaining its sovereignty from foreign imperialist powers. Kemalist Turkey also formed the non-aggression Saddabdad Pact with its neighbors, including Reza Shah’s Iran, Mohammad Zahir Shah’s Afghanistan, and Iraq to promote regional peace and friendly cooperations. It also formed the Balkan Pact with Yugoslavia, Greece, and Romania to resist the imperialist expansionist ambitions of Fascist Italy and Tsarist Bulgaria.
Ataturk was also credited for his transformational change in Turkish agriculture and ecological development. The Kemalist government planned 4 million trees, modernized the Turkish agricultural mechanism, implemented flood controls, opened schools in rural areas with rural institutions such as agricultural banks, and implemented land reform that removed heavy taxes on peasants of the Ottoman era. He was described as the “Father of Turkish Agriculture.” Ataturk also massively boomed the Turkish economy with heavy industrial production increased by 150% and GDP capita rose from 800 USD to around 2000 USD by late 1930s, on par with Japan. It also quickly industrialized Turkey in a rapid time frame. Additionally, the labor participation rate of the Kemalist single-parry period was as high as 70%. The participation rate continued to decline after the democratization of Turkey due to the backlash of conservative norms in the Turkish society. Ataturk also doubled the Turkish literacy rate to 22.4% before he died. After he died, his successor Inonu more than tripled the literacy rate to 33% from a mere 10% in 1923. The number of student attending middle schools and high schools have been multiplied by 12 times and 17.5 times, respectively.
After Ataturk’s death, the new Turkish president Ismet Inonu adopted a more statist economy and enforced laicist policies by shutting down thousands of Mosques, as well as implementing a wealthy tax that targeted wealthy minorities such as Armenians, Jews, and Greeks. The economic failure of Inonu and the consequences of WW2 on Turkish trade ended the economic boom of the Ataturk era and caused a severe recession in the Turkish economy. Turkey stayed neutral in WW2 and strongly resisted the push of far-right figures like Nihal Atsiz and Alparslan Turkes to declare war on the USSR to take Azerbaijan from the Soviet Union. In the 1940s, the Turkish Straits Crisis happened as the Stalinist USSR attempted to imperialize Turkish maritime borders by forcing Turkey to accept a deal with the military threat. This attempt was, however, strongly resisted by Turkey with the support of the Truman Administration. This caused the two decades of alliance between Turkey and the USSR to fall apart, which saw Turkey’s eventual NATO admission in 1952, shortly after the end of the CHP One-party state and Adnan Menderes’s Democrat Party came to power.
After the end of the single-party period of the CHP, the influence of Kemalism began to decline even though Ataturk’s image remained universally respected in Turkish politics. The Kemalist CHP rarely won fairly held democratic elections since the Multi-party Period of Turkey. Recently, under two decades of Islamist rule, there has been a revival of Kemalism under the rebranded Turkish opposition Nation Alliance.
Kemalism is defined as having six principles, which are notably represented in its symbol with the six arrows.
Republicanism or in Turkish "cumhuriyetçilik" is the belief that civic power within society should be held within democratically elected representatives, instead of passed down through the generations like in a monarchy of the Ottoman Empire. Though it also banned earlier opposition parties because of "saving the secular state"
The Kemalist republic is a unitary state favoring centralization.
Nationalism or in Turkish "Milliyetçilik" in the Kemalist context refers to the belief in a single Turkish nation unified under a Rousseauian social contract. This form of Nationalism is very much Civic, believing that to be Turkish one must "Protect and promote the moral, spiritual, cultural and humanistic values of the Turkish Nation.". Kemalist Nationalism also favors a form of Souverainism, rejecting imperialism and foreign conquest, although it views the nation as inseparable not allowing for secessionism. Ataturk's nationalism also favors a policy called 'Turkification', which assimilates other ethnicities of Turkey to the Turkish culture, and this policy is Cultural Nationalist. However, contrary to regimes that practiced cultural genocides, Ataturk’s assimilation was based on state encouragement and persuasion rather than coercion, and minorities were allowed to keep their cultural, religious, and language practices at home.
Populism or in Turkish "Halkçılık" is the belief that political power and sovereignty within society should be held by the Turkish people instead of the nobility.
However, the concept of "people" here is not in a left-wing or right-wing "populist" sense. It is ideologized by "solidarist corporatism" (or corporate solidarism) originating from the Third French Republic. Kemalist intellectuals were significantly influenced by Émile Durkheim. Kemalism is against the class struggle and supports the cooperation of the professions. However, there were no corporations established in Kemalist Turkey. The Republican Peoples Party program theoretically divided "people" into professions. The aim here is to create a united nation that does not discriminate against class, race, religion, and gender.
Because of this similarity, the Republican People's Party was invited by the Radical Republican Party to the International Understanding of Radical Parties and Similar Democratic Parties (Entente Internationale des Partis Radicaux et des Partis Démocratiques Similaires) in 1926.Şükrü Kaya, one of Atatürk's ministers, stated the following in an official newspaper:
Friends; There are various kinds of organizations called populism on earth. Joint work of leftist ideas in recent times and called the popular fronts, a number of political we meet the institutions. Our notion of populism has nothing to do with them. The truth of this word is to the party in the first days of the was taken as the name. The populism recipe, which was made in the language of the Great Chef (Mustafa Kemal Atatürk), found its perfection in the party program. This qualification protects dormitory is from pretenses of privilige and class fights. It has great importance protecting.Şükrü Kaya, Minister of Interior of Turkey. 13 February 1937
In the 1931 Republican People's Party (CHP) Program, it was written as follows:
It is one of our main principles to accept the people of the Republic of Turkey as a community that is not made up of separate classes, but as a community that is dedicated to various employees in terms of division of labor for individual and social life.
A) Small farmers,
B) Small industrialists and shopkeepers,
D) Self-employed person,
E) Industrialists, large land and business owners, and merchants.
They are the main working groups that constitute the Turkish community. The work of each of them is essential for the life and happiness of the other and the general community. The purpose of our party with this principle is to ensure social order and solidarity instead of class struggle and to establish harmony in interests in a way that does not distort each other. Benefits are proportional to ability and degree of work.
The aim is "to build a cohesive mass without privileges, without classes."
However, a compromise between workers and bosses is stipulated. For this reason, good rights have been provided to the workers and job security to the bosses. Thus, the class struggle was wanted to be prevented. However, Kemalism is not fascism. It does not have a fascist corporatist understanding. His understanding is a solidarist corporatist.The aim is to create a unified nation. Workers and bosses are required to be "civic nationalists".
In the program of the Republican People's Party of 1931, it is stated as follows:
We will take into account the rights and interests of nationalist Turkish workers. Establishing harmony between labor and capital, and imposing appropriate provisions with a labor law, are among important jobs.
Within the scope of this principle (Kemalist populism), "Spring Day" was celebrated as a national holiday instead of May 1, Labor Day since 1935. May 1 is a holiday. However, instead of a holiday representing the working class, it was declared a national holiday.
Statism or in Turkish "devletçilik" is the belief that the state should actively intervene within the economy and society to solve issues, this principle aligns Kemalist economic policy as leaning towards Social Authoritarianism, but the level of statism and economic interventionism varies between variants.
In the 1935 CHP Party Program, statism was explained as follows:
While keeping private work and activity as a basis, it is one of our important principles to actually concern the state in the affairs required by the general and high interests of the nation, especially in the economic field, in order to bring the nation to prosperity and the country's development in as little time as possible. The interest of the state in economic affairs is to encourage private entrepreneurs and to regulate and control what is done, as well as actually constructing.
The economic side of the principle was expressed by Atatürk as "dirigisme" and "state socialism". It is a pragmatic principle. Because economic understandings change over time.
In the opening speech of Atatürk's CHP 4th Congress (May 9, 1935) , he said:
Friends you see that; We are dealing with establishing a brand new guided economy (dirigisme, dirigiste) order. Our party's economic understanding; It will show that our program in this direction is the best program that will meet the needs of the country and make it develop in a short time. There is no doubt that with your new advice and directives you will facilitate our re-advancement and promotion measures.
On 1 November 1937, Atatürk said:
Markets are not intervened unless there is a definite obligation; however, no market is idle either.
Laicism, also called secularism and in Turkish "Laiklik" is the belief that religion should be separated from all forms of public life. What separates Kemalist laicism from how secularism is practiced in most western countries is the focus on not only separating the church (or rather mosque) from the state, but also from society in general, seeking to make religion a personal affair. This principle aligns Kemalist social policy as being culturally rather left-wing.
Reformism, also called Revolutionism and in Turkish "inkılâpçılık" is the belief that the Turkish Society and the Kemalist philosophy should seek to actively reinvent and modernize to fit with the modern times and not to cling on the oppressive institutions of the past. At the same time, this principle is directly related to progressivism . This principle aligns also aligns Kemalist social policy as being culturally rather left-leaning.
The Free Republican Party (sometimes referred to as the Liberal Republican Party; in Turkish: Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) was a political party founded by Fethi Okyar upon President Kemal Atatürk's request in the early years of the Turkish Republic.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk requested that Okyar create it as an opposition party to confront the ruling Republican People's Party with the aim of establishing the tradition of multi-party democracy in Turkey.
In addition, this party defended the Liberal Kemalist thought in line with Atatürk's wishes.
However, the party was quickly hijacked by Islamic fundamentalists who saw it as an opportunity to reverse the reforms of Atatürk, particularly regarding secularism, and was personally dissolved in November 1930 by Okyar who himself was an ardent supporter of the reforms.
Most modern-day Turkish parties do not follow Ataturk's originally ideology, but instead follows this revisionary version of Kemalism that generally supports free-market economics and liberal democracy by combining Kemalism with liberalism.
In line with Atatürk's request and permission, the communists on trial in 1927, published a new magazine. The name of the magazine was "Kadro. Atatürk also made a statement to this magazine. Şevket Süreyya Aydemir is the founder of this ideology. However, the publishers of the magazine made a socialist-Kemalist discourse, not being a Marxist due to their ideological orientation. Ultimately, the magazine's lead author was appointed ambassador. For this reason, Kadro magazine dissolved itself. In short, they were "socialist-Kemalist".
Those who publish the magazine are called "Kadroists (Kadrocular)."
İbrahim Kaypakkaya heavily critiqued Socialist Kemalism and said that the socialist movement was always opposed to Kemal's bourgeois ways and that he oppressed ethnic minorities. He referred to Socialist Kemalists as "Shafak Revisionists" in his works.
Social Democratic Kemalism / Centre-Left Kemalism
The Republican People's Party declared that it was the "Left of Center" (Turkish: Ortanın Solu) since 1965. After this year, Kemalism and social democracy were commemorated together in Turkey. Before 1965, there was no social democracy in the Republican People's Party. Bülent Ecevit and İsmet İnönü are the founders of this ideology.
On July 29, 1965, just before the 1965 general elections, Chairman İsmet İnönü spoke for the first time that the CHP's line was "left of center" during an interview with journalist Abdi İpekçi:
The CHP is a statist party by nature, and as such, of course, it has a left-of-centre understanding.
Bülent Ecevit, on the other hand, said:
The main factor that separates the center-left from the extreme left, communism, is that it is democratic.Left of Center (p. 91)
Ecevit later founded the Democratic Left Party. Here he continued to defend his view with names such as "democratic left".
Conservative Kemalism / Centre-right Kemalism
It can be assumed that the Democrat Party, which came to power in 1950, established this ideology. Celal Bayar and Adnan Menderes (Self-proclaimed, debatably) are the founders of this ideology. During this period, relations with America and NATO were at a high level. Anti-communism was more radical than in the Atatürk era. Turhan Feyzioğlu, who later opposed the concept of "left of centre", left the Republican People's Party and founded the Republican Reliance Party on the principles of right-Kemalism.
In some forms of conservatism, change is advocated slowly, with this variant being closer to Progressive Conservatism. To give an example, the Republican Reliance Party writes in its program:
We are reformers, not destructive. We are supporters of reform.Republican Reliance Party Program, 1967, p. 30
A good modern-day example of centre-right Kemalism is the iYi Good Party that advocates a liberal democratic form of national-conservative Kemalism.
With the influence of the rising Fascism in the world in the 1930s, Recep Peker argued that the Republican People's Party should align with Fascism. Paramilitary units affiliated with the party demanded applications such as strong party anthems and a council of fascism. His ideas were rejected by Atatürk and he dismissed Peker from the party position, putting him under high surveillance. Peker would later return as PM in 1946-1947 under Ionu, opposing any attempts at transitioning to a multi-party party system, as he believed CHP should stay in power forever. Throughout the 1930s and the 1940s, Peker oversaw the implementation of Turkification policies on Kurds and other minorities such as the wealth tax and anti-religious laws that shut down thousands of mosques. His attempts to make CHP fascist failed and he retired in 1948.
Turkish Patriotic Socialism/National Democratic Revolution
The aim of this ideology is to liquidate monarchism and other reactionary elements by first realizing the goals of Kemalism in Turkey. Then, as the continuation of Kemalism, he says that socialism will come. The "Patriotic Party" represents this idea in Turkey.
Ethnokemalism / Far-right Kemalism
Mehmet Saffet (Arın) Engin, in an article in Ülkü magazine, after stating that a nationalist society attaches importance to solidarity, listed elements such as history, language, ideals, and unity of interest as elements of solidarity. He shows an ethnocentric tendency by referring to the superiority of the Turkish ethnicity, by considering the blood factor among the unifying factors, and by including the concept of ethnicity rather than the nation in some of his views.
Saffet Engin, who described Atatürk as the Great Genius and hailed him as the creator of the Turkish ethnicity at the beginning of his book in which he analyzed the Kemalist revolution, states in another chapter of a book he wrote that there was very little ethnic mixing in Anatolia. He claims that only 5.5% of dolichocephalic elements are encountered in anthropological researches in Anatolia and that a clean ethnicity type is dominant. Although he states that the concept of nation is not limited to ethnicity, Saffet Engin, who believes that ethnicity superiority is a fact, argues that the dominant ethnicity also gives the nation its character. Approaching the subject from this perspective, Saffet Engin also claims that it has been scientifically proven that the Turkish character cannot be compared with any other nation. As can be seen, Saffet Engin, who does not exclude the concept of ethnicity in the definition of a nation, speaks easily of ethnic superiority. Although this is not an approach that dominates both his own works and the general idea of the period, the presence of these ethnnocentric elements in his various writings differentiates Saffet Engin's stance. However, ethnonationalism was rejected in the 1935 CHP Party Programme. In other words, if he had conveyed these ideas to Atatürk, he would have been rejected.
Modern-day proponents of Ethnokemalism are Ümit Özdağ and his Victory Party, the Ancestral Alliance of which ZP is a part of, and 2023 presidential candidate Sinan Oğan.
Marxism-Kemalism / Far-left Kemalism
Deniz Gezmiş stated that he was a Marxist-socialist and Kemalist, as a political activist.
The first person to talk about this issue was his close friend Uluç Gürkan. Uluç Gürkan, in an interview with Işık Kansu from Cumhuriyet newspaper, said the following:
Deniz used to describe himself as a "Marxist-Kemalist". He used to say, You are a left Kemalist.Cumhuriyet Newspaper, 8 November 1998, p. 8.
Oral Çalışlar, in an article about the communist movements he was involved in, said:
We prefer to say "Mustafa Kemal" and our ideal photograph is the one that is the heart of the National Struggle. We call our militant youth struggle the "Second National Independence War".
The education we received and the preferences of our families led us to raise us with Kemalist ideology. This is what Kemalism teaches us: “People are reactionary. The military-civil intellectual group is progressive. It is necessary to intervene with authoritarian methods from above so that they can dedicate this backward society to themselves. The one-party rule is very useful in this regard.”Of course, we were also embracing the rising "socialism" in the world... One day, Deniz Gezmiş and I left the Turkish National Youth Organization building in Tünel. At the beginning of the street, we stopped in front of Foto Sureyya, where Ataturk's photographs were exhibited in its window. Deniz said, "We are Kemalists." Then I, "aren't we Socialists?" said. I did not find it strange that Deniz said We are both socialists and Kemalists.
In other words, Deniz Gezmiş called himself "both Kemalist and socialist" in another place.
In addition, Deniz Gezmiş, while being tried in court, said that "if there are people in this country who really support Mustafa Kemal, it is us."
However, this conceptualization is highly controversial among communists, and some argue that Deniz Gezmiş was simply a communist.
Although it is known that Kemalism has such an interpretation, Atatürk was against communism.
How to Draw
Kemalism's design is based on the "Six Arrows" symbol, which represents the six principles of the ideology. The symbol is used by the Government of Turkey and the Republican People's Party of Turkey.
- Draw a ball with eyes.
- Fill it with red.
- Draw 6 white arrows coming from the bottom left corner.
And you're done!
|Red||#E30A17||227, 10, 23|
|White||#FFFFFF||255, 255, 255|
- Bull Moose Progressivism - My american counterpart
- New Dealism - Thanks for the new deal Franklin.
- Civic Nationalism - Together against ethnats and racenats.
- Cultural Nationalism - Turkification go brrrrr.
- Tridemism - My fellow modernist eastern brother. We both fought against monarchism and imperialism and created a modern constitutional republic. But maybe a bit too conservative. Also Hu Hanmin is based.
- Social Authoritarianism - A benevolent dictatorship and welfare are both great, but I am slightly concerned about your connections with the unions. The modern-day me is strongly affiliated with the Turkish unions, though.
- Social Corporatism - It's nice to maintain social justice and be against class conflict. I also classified my people according to their professions. But corporations and trade unions are not good. The modern-day me supports both.
- Laicism & Secularism - Religion and state MUST be separate!
- Republicanism - Long live the republic!
- Reformism - I have transformed Turkey into a modern state.
- Welfarism - You are a great tool to unite my nation!
- Progressivism - YES DUDE NOW WE F*CKING GOT RID OF RECUCKTIONARISM !
- Radicalism - I "Turkified" you a little bit.
- Liberal Feminism - More female bombers? BASED![Note 5]
- Pragmatism - No to dogmatic and idealistic doctrines or theories! I am always willing to compromise and cooperate across party and ideological lines as long as it's practical and good for the Turkish nation.
- Progressive Conservatism - The ONLY good conservative.
- Reza Shah Thought - A great friend of mine who learned my secularism and modernization, though monarchism is uncool. We are still best buddies.
- Paternalistic Conservatism - Good economics and nationalism, bad social policies.
- National Conservatism - Similar to the above. Nationalism is hella based but conservatism is not.
- National Liberalism - Fellow Liberal Nationalist, but what's the problem with Economic Intervention and Statism?
- Islamic Feminism - Women's rights are very important, but what do you mean you actually want to wear a veil voluntarily?!
- Leninism - Thanks for helping me in the Turkish war of independence. Although Communism isn't great.
- Pancasila - He is pretty close to me and Tridemism. But I don't like how religious he is. I like how you love my ideas and admire me, though.
- Jacobinism - You taught me secularism and reformism, but calm down a bit. I like republicanism, reason, and revolution, but not guillotine for religious people and state atheism.
- Zionism - The Turkish Republic supports the right to self-determination of the Jewish people! That being said, do you really need constant wars to expand your territories?
- Welfare Chauvinism - I like your economic policies, but Ultranationalism is stupid. Civic Nationalism is the best type of Nationalism! Peker attempted to make CHP into you, but Kemal rejected him and Ionu limited his impact.
- Venizelism - I know you're annoyed about the whole Izmir incident, but we're cool now, right?
- Metaxism - Right?
- Left-Wing Nationalism - We can fight together against imperialism!
I shut down the magazine Kadro, I hope you don't mind it
- Neoconservatism - Our relations became great after Joseph Stalin acted aggressively against me and I eventually supported NATO. Also thanks for helping me to get rid of this commie. Even so, you only did these things to turn Turkey into your puppet state and I’ll never forgive you for funding this terrorist.
- Social Democracy - You might be better off if you aren’t so liberal politically and didn't support the unions and take the "labor" side of the labor-capital conflict... I like unions in modern-day Turkey just to mess with him and to regain control of the country, though.
- Islamic Democracy - ......have you realized how much a tool you are?
- Feminism - "The most important duty of Turkish women is to raise generations capable of protecting and defending the Turk with their mentality, strength and determination. The most precious duty of women is maternity. Considering that the place where the first education is given is the mother's lap, the importance of this duty is well understood. Our nation is trying to become a strong nation. One of the needs of today is to help our women rise in every aspect. Therefore, our women will also become scholars and scientists, and they will pass all the degrees of education that men pass. Then women will help each other by walking with men in social life."
- Liberalism - Dude, please shut up and keep up with me! It was a failed attempt in 1930.
- Stratocracy - I absolutely support the separation of the military and the government.
Even though many of my fellow supporters are militarists who couped democratically-elected governments. And Erdogan should have been removed in 2016.
- Pan-Turkism - I can't give up on Turks, but I continue to humiliate you in Nutuk.
Maybe I'm waiting for the dissolution of the Soviet Union...[Note 6]
- Anti-Authoritarianism - The state is epic actually (Six arrows > Three arrows).
But my modern counterpart flirts with you, for some reason.
- Monarcho-Socialism - Not a fan of either monarchism or socialism....but Amanullah Khan and Zahir Shah are my based friends.
- Stalinism - We used to have a positive bilateral relationship, but you later triggered the Turkish Strait Crisis to steal our land so.....
- Internationalism - It’s a mixed bag really. I support peace in the world, and Turkey shaped the international laws of the League of Nations, but the Turkish nation always comes first.
- Felicity Party - You're almost the complete opposite of us. But you hate Erdoğan, so I guess you can stay in our alliance.
- HDP - Bruh, you are just him again, get rekt! But thank you for supporting Kılıçdaroğlu for 2023, we will take down Erdoğan together.
- Reactionaryism, Islamic Theocracy, and Monarchism - THE ENEMIES OF THE TURKISH PEOPLE! YOU MUST BE SNUFFED OUT FOR TURKEY TO SUCCEED! I crushed you once MOTHER F**kers and I shall do it again... Once I beat the SH*T out of that bastard in the ballot box of the upcoming election!
- Neo-Ottomanism - ERDOCUCK! YOU DESTROYED TURKEY WITH YOUR STUPID "NATIONALISM" WHO ONLY OBSCURED THE ACTUAL NATIONALISM THAT THE NAME IS: CARE FOR THE FUCKING NATION! AND I HOPE YOU BURN IN HELL FOR ETERNTY FOR EVERYTHING YOU'VE DONE TO MY COUNTRY!
- Ottomanism - Oppressor of Turks! I DESTROYED YOU! NOW, YOU DON'T EXIST ANYMORE!
- İttihadism - "These left-overs from the former Young Turk party, who should have been made to account for millions of out Christian subjects who were ruthlessly driven en masse, from their homes and massacred, have been restive under the Republican rule."
But I took a few notes from you for my modernization of Turkey
- MHP - You are the biggest ally of Neo-Ottomanism. F*ck you! Even some of your former supporters like Akşener, who still adhere to my true Turkish patriotic ideals left you!
- Jihadism - F*ck off, Islamic terrorist!
- Islamic Populism - Stop trying to bring these backwards idiots into power, dammit!
- Imperialism - Screw you imperialist scumbags that wanted to destroy my nation with the Treaty of Sevres! Also, I established the Balkan Pact to fight off fascist imperialists and thwarted the plot of Soviet communist imperialists to take over Turkey!
- Anationalism - BAS....wait, I thought you were called Anatolianism for a second. Never mind, you suck.
- Nazism - I don't care you admired me, you are a genocidal scum!
Just don’t search up the German-Turkish Treaty of Friendship.
- Fascism - TELL THAT BIG GUY THAT HE CAN'T TAKE IZMIR WITH 40.000 SOLDIERS, BUT I CAN ENTER ROME WITH 4.000 MEHMETCIK!
- Democratic Confederalism - Terrorist Kurdish scum! Thank god Ecevit and Clinton helped capture your leader.
- Kaypakkayaism - GO TO HELL YOU TERRORIST COMMIE SCUM! I captured you and have you eliminated as the enemy of the Turkish nation and this is Turkey, not China.
- Separatism - NO SEPARATISM! KURDISTAN, WESTERN ARMENIA, AND ASSYRIA ARE INALIENABLE PARTS OF TURKEY!!!
- Gaddafism - Basically a left-wing and socialist version of that bastard and f*ck you for supporting this terrorist scum!
- Francoism - I support the Spanish Republic over you. 
- Manosphere - "WAAAAAAAH! BrInG bAcK mUh PaTrIcHaL OtToMaN eMpIrE sO wOmEn'S rIgHtS wIlL dIe!!!" Keep your problem about women out of your fucking sexist mouth now, because women won't be treated like properties of men anymore!
- Patriarchy - So, That guy above wants you back in Turkey? Keep dreaming!
- Churchillism - I don’t care if you liked me! You are a filthy imperialist who committed atrocities during the Turkish War of Independence. Not to add that you also worked with Stalin to topple my great friend the Shah!
- Nutuk by Ataturk
- Ataturk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey by Andrew Mango
- Turkish Foreign Policy: Islam, Nationalism and Globalization by Hasan Kosebalaban
- Ataturk: An Intellectual Biography by Sukru Hanioglu
- Turkey, from Empire to Revolutionary Republic by İştar Günaydın
- Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
- Republican People’s Party
- Ataturk’s Cult of Personality
- Ataturk’s reforms
- Left of Center
- Turkish War of Independence
- Balkan Pact
- Saadabad Pact
- Treaty of Lausanne
- One-party period of the Republic of Turkey
- Abolition of the Caliphate
- Treaty of Sevres
- ↑ Only correct if referring to Pekerism.
- ↑ Inonu’s economic policy was based on Ataturk’s statism, mixed with Soviet-style planned economy that he studied.
- ↑ Kemalist Turkey didn’t develop large-scale industrial capitalism, but its economic policies in the 1930s are sometimes described as state capitalism by scholars.
- ↑ After the refugee crisis.
- ↑ The linked photo is of Sabiha Gökçen (as seen on the left), a Turkish pilot recognized as the first female combat pilot in history. She was an adopted child of Atatürk.
In this particular photo, she is holding a bomb shortly before the so-called Dersim massacre against the "Alevi Kurdish" tribalist separatist Islamist insurgency, against the Kemalist government of Turkey. Some claims that thousands of Kurds were killed by Turkish forces in this counter-insurgency suppression. Whether this is a massacre is subject to debate.
- ↑ Although Atatürk openly opposed Pan-Turkism in his Nutuk in 1927, he said otherwise in 1933. In fact, he never declared himself a Pan-Turkist. And Atatürk shut down the Pan-Turkist associations in the 1930s. However, the following words he said in 1933 clearly reveal his own thinking:
Today the Soviet Union is our friend, our neighbor, our ally. We need this friendship. But no one can predict what will happen soon. Just like the Ottoman Empire, just like Austria-Hungary, they can be broken into pieces. The nations that they hold tightly in their hands today, can escape from their hands. World may get a new balance. That's when Turkey should know what to do. Under the administration of this friend of ours, we have brothers with the same language, same belief and same essence. We must be prepared to protect and watch over them. Being ready is not just being silent and waiting for that day. We need to be prepared. How do nations be prepared for this? By keeping spiritual bridges intact. The language is a bridge, history is a bridge, faith is a bridge. We must go back to our roots and we all have to unify in our history which is divided by events. We cannot wait for them to approach us. We need to approach them.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 "10 Derya Nil Budak", GlobalMediaJournalTr.tr
- ↑ https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2023/gundem/dsp-hangi-ittifaki-destekleyecegini-acikladi-7646983/
- ↑ "Turkey's 'New Nationalism' amid shifting policies", The American Progress.
- ↑ "Factories established by Great Ataturk, founder of Turkey, in first 15 years of the republic", BusinessTurkeyToday.
- ↑ "Turkish GDP-per-capita and GDP growth 1923-1990", ReserachGate.
- ↑ , ScienceDirect.com.
- ↑ , Jstor.org.
A photo of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the "Father of the Turks."
Portraits and Artwork
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"Kemalism vs Islamic theocracy", Source