İttihadism was a prominent Nationalist ideology in the Ottoman Empire, that came about after the Young Turk Revolution of 1908. Whilst the Revolution resulted in Education reform, the Secularization of Ottoman society and the expansion of women's rights, it also led to the rise of Turkish Nationalism, that culminated in the Armenian Genocide of 1915-1917. It was the official ideology of the Committee of Union and Progress.
The leadership of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) was always Nationalist, but they didn't stress it until the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, so not to worry the non-Turkish population of the Ottoman Empire. A big problem for the CUP was that the majority of Turks inhabiting the Ottoman Empire didn't see themselves as Turkish, but as Sunni Muslims who spoke the Turkish Language. To overcome this the CUP planned to revolutionise Turkish society to make the Turks aware of their Turkish identity.
The CUP believed that the reason why the western world had became so successful in spreading their culture and beliefs around the world was their scientific advancement. The CUP wanted to form a "Cult of Science" and they were greatly influenced by Auguste Comte and Gustave Le Bon. The Unionists were strong believers in countries being ruled by a group of Scientists. The main problem preventing this from happening was the fact that the Ottoman Empire was a third world country and that the majority of the Muslim population was illiterate, therefore the populace didn't know much about science. The CUP were obsessed with science and many of their leaders were fascinated by chemistry. The Unionists believed that they were "societal doctors" who would apply modern scientific methods to solve all social problems. The CUP saw themselves as the Scientocrats who would save the empire with science.
As well as having great faith in science, the CUP supported Social Darwinism and the Scientific Racism that dominated Germany during the early 20th Century. Whilst the CUP weren't always proponents of Social Darwinism, as they changed their beliefs on the subject depending on who was in charge and they would quite often change their beliefs from Pan-Islamism, Pan-Turkism to Ottomanism, depending on whether it was convenient to them or not. The only thing that mattered was that the Ottoman Empire would become a world power again. In fact originally the CUP didn't promote Social Darwinism and even saw the Armenian Revolutionary Federation as potential allies not an inferior race. But eventually the Social Darwinism factions of the CUP gained control of the party.
During the Hamidian Regime of Sultan Abdulhamid II Pan-Islamism became the state ideology, as Abdulhamid often stressed being the Caliph. The idea of Abdulhamid being the Caliph was very popular in the Raj. Even though the Young Turks deposed Abdulhamid in 1909 and put Mehmed V in power, they still promoted Pan-Islamism. This was because if the Ottoman Sultan was the Caliph then the loyalty of the Muslims under Ottoman control would theoretically be ensured. The fact that Indian Muslims were more loyal to the Ottoman Caliph than to the British Empire was a big concern for the British.
Whilst the CUP would promote Pan-Islamism, they had always been a secular organization. The Unionists cracked down upon Islamic Fundamentalists after the 1909 Counterrevolution which would strain the Union's relationship with the Ulema, but they would promote Islamism during the First World War to rile up the Muslim population of the Ottoman Empire. But the CUP still saw themselves as a Secular and Modernizing force. An example of their modernization was the passing of the controversial 1917 "Temporal Family Law" which was viewed as a significant advance in women's rights and Secularism in the Ottoman Empire. Women were given more power in the household, became able to divorce their husbands and polygamy was restricted.
The CUP were greatly influenced by Japan. The Japanese Empire had championed Pan-Asianism which had greatly inspired the CUP's Pan-Islamism and Pan-Turkism. Since Japan defeated the Russian during the Russo-Japanese War, the CUP believed that the Ottoman Empire would defeat the Western Powers in a similar war. The CUP admired the Japanese for their embracement of science without losing their "Eastern spiritual essence". In the CUP eyes this showed that they could embrace science and secularism whilst also embracing Pan-Islamism and keeping their Islamic identity. The fact that the Japanese Empire had defeated the Russian Empire, who were the Ottomans' main rival, made the CUP become absolute Japanophiles. The CUP intended to make the Ottoman Empire the "Japan of the Near East". The CUP saw the 1908 Young Turk Revolution as the Ottoman equivalent of the 1867-1868 Boshin War. In the west, they were terrified of the so called "Yellow Peril" (which states that the peoples of the East were going to destroy the powers of the West), but the CUP were excited by the idea of the Western Empires being terrified of the Eastern peoples.
The CUP were greatly influenced by Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz's idea of a "Nation in Arms". The Japanese Empire had a code of Bushido (The Way of the Warrior) and indoctrinated all Japanese young men into believing that there was no thing more honourable than to fight (and die if necessary) to protect the Emperor. The Unionists were impressed by how well the Japanese fought in the Siege of Port Arthur, where thousands of Japanese soldiers were mown down by Russian Machine Guns, but they kept advancing out of love for the Emperor. The CUP wanted to emulate Bushido and the Ultranationalist Culture of Japan. The Unionists also observed the Russian troops, tired and not even knowing why they were in Manchuria or at war with the Japanese in the first place, and concluded that troops needed a reason to fight or they wouldn't be effective soldiers. A major factor in the İttihadist ideology was the "Devaluation of Life" which was the belief that the Japanese, Turks and various other "people's of the east" didn't care if their lives were sacrificed for the greater good, but westerners foolishly clung onto their lives with all their might. They believed that the Ottoman troops would be motivated to fight for the concept of Jihad, and dying for the Ottoman Caliph. War, according to the Unionists, just came down to who had the strongest will to fight.
Before the 1908 Revolution, the CUP would boycott US goods and shut down the Public Debt Administration. They came up with the idea of the "National Economy" or Millî İktisat ,which combined elements of Corporatism and Protectionism. The CUP wanted to create a new Bourgeoisie in the Ottoman Empire, which would be made up of members of the Proletariat. They viewed this as an effective way to combat Capitalism. This Marxist rhetoric was later used by the 3 Pasha's against Armenians, who the 3 Pasha's viewed as Bankocrats who had stolen wealth from the Turkish people. This rhetoric was later copied by the Nazis. The National Economy greatly influenced Kemalism's economic policies.
According to Turkish historian Handan Nezir Akmeșe, the commitment of the CUP to the 1876 constitution that they claimed to be fighting for was only "skin deep", and was more of a rallying cry for popular support than anything else.
After realizing that the Young Turks were not fulfilling their pre-1908 promises, workers from all the different nationalities and ethnic groups of the Ottoman Empire went on strike. Groups like the Socialist Workers' Federation and Ottoman Socialist Party were founded. The Young Turks were afraid of international solidarity between workers and enacted the Tatil-i Eşgaal Kanunu. In the Late Ottoman Genocides, socialist intellectuals were exiled.
Before 1913 İttihadism isn't as racist as he becomes after 1913. After 1913 he becomes a psychopathic maniac who goes on killing sprees whenever he sees Armenians, Assyrians, Greeks and Kurds.
How to draw
- Draw a ball
- Draw the crescent moon and the star (like the Turkish flag)
- Color the ball in red
- Color the crescent moon and the star in White
- Draw the Turkish words surrounding the crescent moon and the star (like the Young Turk flag), the words should be in white
- Add the eyes and you're done
|Red||#E30A17||227, 10, 23|
|White||#FFFFFF||255, 255, 255|
- Bismarckism - Fellow Central Power member!
- Showa Statism - A great example for Asia in the modern age.
- Scientocracy - We need a cult of science to fix the Empire's problems!
- Constitutional Monarchism - The 1908 Revolution was based.
- Ethnic Nationalism - TURKS NUMBER 1!
- Pan-Islamism - Very based.
- Social Darwinism - Those weak Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks will all just die out
- Islamic Fascism - Very close to me, just be a bit more secular
- Conservative Feminism - This is my kind of Feminism!
- Reactionary Modernism - Based.
- Islamic Theocracy and Jihadism - You can be useful to inspire the troops, but stop trying to make the Empire a Theocracy!
- Kemalism - You were inspired by me and you are kinda based, but why did you have to leave me?!?
- Neo-Ottomanism - Hates me for overthrowing Abdulhamid, but agrees with me on many non-trivial issues, such as imperialism.
- Ottomanism - I supported you in the 20th century for 'Ottoman unity', but now I support Turkish ethnonationalism as the empire crumbles.
- Christian Theocracy - Filthy Armenians, Greeks, and Assyrians! YOU DO NOT BELONG ON ANATOLIA!
- Metaxism - Hell*nic scum.
- Venizelism - Read above.
- Separatism - HOW DARE YOU BREAK AWAY FROM THE GLORIOUS EMPIRE!
- Kurdish Nationalism - Filthy inferior Kurds.
- Left-Wing Nationalism - Disgusting Armenian terrorists trying to divide the Ottoman empire and ruin it! Also, FUCK YOU FOR KILLING TALAAT PASHA AND CEMAL PASHA!!!
- Liberal Socialism and Progressivism - No, I'm nothing like the modern day "Young Turks"
- Bidenism - Stop acting like I killed Armenians.
- Anationalism - Huh? Anatolianism? Not sure about tha... Oh, it's "Anationalism". Well, fuck you.
- Young Turks
- Young Turk Revolution
- Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire
- Modern Ottoman Army
- Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
- Ottoman Empire in World War I
- Riza opposed the anti-armenian laws and the genocides against armenians that was committed by the C.U.P.
- Left as soon as nationalist groups came to power