×
Create a new article
Write your page title here:
We currently have 908 articles on Polcompball Wiki. Type your article name above or create one of the articles listed here!



    Polcompball Wiki

    Independence Anarchism


    Independence Anarchism is an Awaj.png anarchist, Prgess.png culturally left-wing and Soc.png economically left-wing movement of movements and Awaj.png anarchist tendency that advocates for and emphasizes the Sep.png autonomy, self-determination or independence of a given people with a common identity from forms of hierarchy, especially centralized ones, in defense of the nation's culture, language and history. It inhabits the Libleft.png bottom left corner of the political compass.

    Independence anarchism as a term originated in Western Europe after the Second World War, and was "officially" adopted by independence anarchists at their first international meeting in 1985, in Guasila, Sardinia. As a result, the movements from Western Europe are mainly the ones who use the label. However, many similar movements, although not so prevalent, have also existed in Eastern Europe, East Asia, the Americas and Northern Africa. A few examples of them are in Cball-Catalonia.png Catalonia, Cball-Brittany.png Brittany, Cball-Occitania.png Occitania, the Cball-Basque.png Basque Country, the Cball-CanaryIslands.png Canary Islands, Cball-Sicily.png Sicily, Cball-Sardinia.png Sardinia, Cball-Andalusia.png Andalusia, Cball-Castile-Purple.png Castile, Cball-HongKong.png Hong Kong and Cball-PuertoRico.png Puerto Rico.

    Independence anarchism is seen as a strain of Post-Colonial Anarchism alongside Indigenous Anarchism.png Indigenous Anarchism, Blackan.png Black Anarchism, Chicano Anarchism and the unique post-colonial anarchist strain that has developed in Ireland, all of which are involved in Sep.png national liberation struggles and are therefore most similar to independence anarchism. Ideologically, independence anarchism is compatible with both Socan2.png social and Anin.png individualist forms of Awaj.png anarchism.

    History and Branches

    Cball-Catalonia.png Cball-Catalonia-Estelada.png Cball-Catalonia-EsteladaRed.png AnInde.png AnInd.png Catalan Countries Cball-Catalonia-EsteladaCircleA.png Cball-Catalonia-EsteladaBlack.png Cball-Catalonia-EsteladaBlackCircleA.png Cball-Catalonia-SenyeraCircleA.png

    The history of independence anarchism in the Catalan Countries (territories where the Catalan language is spoken) can be traced back to the 19th century. As the Catalan Awaj.png anarchist-oriented worker movement and the revindicative national liberation movement became ever so tied together, mostly due to their mutual belief in Fed.png federalism, ideals close to those of modern independence anarchism began to arise. By 1881, Josep Llunas i Pujals (1852 – 1905), the primary theorist of what would later become AnSynd.png anarcho-syndicalism, founded the popular Acol.png libertarian collectivist weekly newspaper La Tramontana (The Tramontane), akin to Cball-Catalonia.png Catalanism and Fed.png federalism, while many Awaj.png anarchist Cball-Catalonia.png Catalanists such as Jaume Brossa wrote essays on the magazine L'Avenç (The Advance), founded on the same year. Although L'Avenç and La Tramontana were closed by the authorities in 1894 and 1896 respectively, they would set the stage for other Awaj.png anarchist newspapers in Catalan to appear, such as L'Avenir (The Future, 1905-1910) and El Progrés (The Progress, 1905-1905). La Tramontana even came back in 1907 and 1913.

    With the creation of the CNT.png National Confederation of Labour (CNT) syndicate in 1910 in Barcelona, factions within AnSynd.png anarcho-syndicalism that can be considered the precursors to Catalan independence anarchism began to materialize. Many prominent Spanish AnSynd.png anarcho-syndicalists such as Joan Peiró (1887 – 1942), Salvador Seguí (1887 – 1923) and Federica Montseny (1905 – 1994), the latter of which was even known for his Cball-Catalonia.png Catalanist sentiment, made statements in support of Catalan autonomy (despite the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia being a subject that initially caused an internal division in the CNT.png CNT). Meanwhile, the FAI.png Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI) was founded in 1927 in València.

    Catalan anarchist militiamen carrying an estelada

    The CNT.png CNT and the FAI.png FAI briefly formed the CNT-FAI during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) to prevent the Franco.png nationalists from taking Catalonia. The CNT-FAI union still had its internal ruptures, which resulted in two main factions: the more moderate, minoritarian and Left Reformism.png reformist Treintists that were mostly made up of some CNT.png CNT members, and the more majoritarian, Insarch.png insurrectionary Faists led by the FAI.png FAI. Both sectors, despite the difference of their tactics, sometimes shared a Cball-Catalonia.png Catalanist sentiment although revindicative/nationalist rhetoric was nowhere to be seen. Before the CNT-FAI's social revolution fell apart, a proposal was made by the Valencian branch of the CNT.png CNT to make a Statute of Autonomy for the Valencian Country, but the project never saw the light of day. The Franco.png nationalists would take over all of Spain in 1939 and Franco would later have a lot of CNT-FAI members executed, effectively making proto-independence anarchism in the Catalan Countries dormant for the duration of the Francoist dictatorship.

    Throughout more recent history, the CGT was formed in 1979 as a result of a split in the CNT.png CNT concerning union elections. The CNT.png CNT, the CGT and the FAI.png FAI would continue to campaign for Awaj.png anarchism in Catalonia, frequently holding debates and talks about the "National Question" between its members.

    However, aside from these three main groups, independence anarchism as a term in the Catalan Countries would finally first appear after the Spanish transition to democracy, with the birth of self-described independence anarchist collectives exclusive to the Catalan Countries.

    In Catalonia, these organizations would first appear in the 80's. The two most notable groups of the era were the Col·lectiu Ikària (Ikària Collective; CI) and the Federació Anarco-Comunista Catalana (Catalan Anarcho-Communist Federation; FACC).

    Propaganda document by the Ikària Collective

    Ikària, which after 1985 became known as Ikària-Contracorrent, published the newsletter Ikària: la Polla de Déu from January 1985 to March 1990, and was born on January 1980 out of student movements and smaller independent libertarian organizations with the objective of initiating a debate inside the anarchist movement in Barcelona. The FACC was founded in Barcelona in 1981 as an Ancom.png anarcho-communist organization for national liberation, and edited the bulletin Tramuntana (not to be confused with the original from 1881) and the newspaper Visca la Terra (Long Live the Land).

    The CI and the FACC worked together in the comarcal Libertarian Assembly of the Barcelonès, but nonetheless began to lose activity in 1982. Thus, on November 1982, they joined forces to create the Coordinadora Llibertària dels Països Catalans (Libertarian Coordinator of the Catalan Countries).

    Aside from the CI and the FACC, the Libertarian Coordinator of the Catalan Countries regrouped several Libertarian Assemblies in different comarcas, such as that of the Empordà (and the Coordinadora Llibertària Empordanesa or Empordanese Libertarian Coordinator, which edited a publication called La Campana de l'Empordà (The Bell of the Empordà) containing only two full issues: issue number 0 on January/February 1983 and issue number 1 on March 1983), the Baix Camp (and the Col·lectiu Llibertari de Vilaplana (Libertarian Collective of Vilaplana) based in the same comarca), the Maresme (and the Coordinadora Llibertària del Maresme or Libertarian Coordinator of the Maresme, which edited an informative document called La Ceba (The Onion) that had an issue sometime in 1982 containing an independence anarchist manifesto) and the Berguedà, among others. There were also several smaller groups that followed independence anarchism inside the Coordinator, such as the Col·lectiu Independentista Estel Negre (Independentist Collective Black Star), Grup Llibertari de l’Ateneu de Mataró (Libertarian Group of the Mataró Athenaeum), the Grup Anarquista l'Insurrecte (Anarchist Group 'the Insurgent') and even a youth organization called the Joventuts Anarco-Independentistes (Independence Anarchist Youth; JAI). A fanzine linked to the JAI and the FACC in the city of L'Escala was called Skena Pelat: fanzine llibertari de l'Empordà (Skena Pelat: libertarian fanzine of the Empordà) with issue number 1 on October of 1986.

    After many years of organizing activities nationally and internationally, the Libertarian Coordinator of the Catalan Countries became inactive by the mid 80's, but ultimately ceased to exist when the FACC was publicly dissolved in late 1988. The Ikària Collective suffered the same fate soon after their headquarters were attacked with an incendiary bomb on July 9th, 1990.

    It is also important to note that a short-lived independence anarchist syndicate referred to as the National Confederation of Labour-Catalan Countries (CNT-PPCC) was formed on late 1983 as a result from a split that the CNT CNT.png underwent. The CNT-PPCC is widely regarded as another organizational proposal of the FACC.

    In the Valencian Country, nominally, independence anarchism would take a bit longer to arrive. Nevertheless, the collective Recerca Autònoma (Autonomous Research) was formed in 1994. It edited a magazine of the same name, first released on February 1994. Recerca Autònoma and other Valencian groups with similar tendencies such as Germania Socialista (Socialist Brotherhood) eventually fell into inactivity.

    In spite of previous events though, independence anarchism in the Catalan Countries experienced a resurgence in the 2000's, with the creation of several new organizations. For example, local groups like Acció Autònoma (Autonomous Action), born in Terrassa in 1997, the collective Catarko, founded in the comarca of El Prat in 2006, and the Valencian collective L'Ullal (The Tusk), born in 2008.

    Logo of Negres Tempestes

    But by far the largest independence anarchist collective in the Catalan Countries is Negres Tempestes (Black Storms; NNTT), founded in 2005 after many encounters between like-minded individuals in the annual Catalan protests of September 11th. Negres Tempestes edits the magazine La Rosa dels Vents (The Compass Rose) and focuses its activity on various squatted social centers, especially the Can Vies Self-Managed Social Center.

    The Bloc Negre (Black Bloc) of the annual demonstrations on September 11th, National Day of Catalonia, serves as a yearly meeting point for the most recent Catalan independence anarchist groups.

    TBD

    Cball-Brittany.png Cball-Brittany-GwennHaDiveliour.png Cball-Brittany-Star.png Cball-Brittany-Disuj.png Cball-Brittany-TempsNoirs.png Brittany Cball-Brittany-BreizhEtrevroadel.png Cball-Brittany-Fulor1.png Cball-Brittany-Fulor2.png Cball-Brittany-CBIL.png

    TBA

    Cball-Occitania.png Cball-Occitania-FACO.png Occitania Cball-Occitania-FaremTotPetar.png

    TBA

    Cball-Basque.png Cball-Basque-AnarkHerria1.png Basque Country Cball-Basque-AnarkHerria2.png

    TBA

    Cball-CanaryIslands.png Cball-CanaryIslands-CoA.png Canary Islands Cball-CanaryIslands-BTC.png Cball-CanaryIslands-AnInde.png

    TBA

    Cball-Sicily.png Sicily Cball-Sicily-Inde.png

    TBA

    Cball-Sardinia.png Sardinia

    TBA

    Cball-Andalusia.png Cball-Andalusia-NoCOA.png Andalusia Cball-Andalusia-Socialist.png Cball-Andalusia-Anarchist.png

    TBA

    Cball-Castile-Red.png Cball-Castile-Purple.png Castile Cball-Castile-Socialist.png Cball-Castile-Anarchist.png

    TBA

    Cball-HongKong.png Hong Kong Cball-HongKong-BlackBauhinia.png

    TBA

    Cball-PuertoRico.png Puerto Rico Cball-PuertoRico-Anarchist.png

    TBA

    Foundations and Beliefs

    Nationalist or Internationalist?

    TBA

    Personality

    Very angry all the time, he just wants independence. (TBD)

    How to Draw

    Flag of Independence Anarchism
    The flag of independence anarchism is the anarchist version of the estelada (starred flag), an unofficial flag typically flown by supporters of Catalan independence. It was first notably used by the previously mentioned Catalan Anarcho-Communist Federation (FACC) in the 80's and later used by more recent groups from the 2000's. Another version of the independence anarchist flag, mainly used by the Ikària collective, swapped the red 8-pointed star with a white circle-A symbol. Since then, many other variants have appeared (for example, one with a black field).

    The symbolism behind the flag is unique. The red stripes on the yellow background represent Catalonia or the Catalan Countries. The triangle symbolizes liberty, fraternity and equality, while the color black is the color of anarchy. The eight-pointed red star is a compass rose and represents the 8 territories of the Catalan Countries (Catalonia proper, the Valencian Country, Andorra, the Balearic Islands, Northern Catalonia, La Franja, l'Alguer and el Carxe).

    1. Draw a ball.
    2. Fill in with yellow.
    3. Draw four horizontal red stripes.
    4. Draw a right-pointing, black triangle on the leftmost point.
    5. Draw an 8-pointed red star in the center of the triangle.
    6. Draw the eyes, and you're done!
    Color Name HEX RGB
    Yellow #FFD800 255, 216, 0
    Red #CD0000 205, 0, 0
    Black #141414 20, 20, 20


    Relations

    Friends

    • Awaj.png Anarchism - You teached me to question the authority of the ruling nation-state.
    • Postconan.png Post-Colonial Anarchism - We always support one another. I'd really like some of your more Americanized variants to recognize anti-imperialist struggles in Europe too though.
    • Leftnat.png Left-Wing Nationalism - I want my own autonomy. I don't want to be part of his Imp.png clay anymore!
    • AnSynd.png Anarcho-Syndicalism - Based parent that succeeded in Catalonia for some time.
    • Sep.png Separatism - Our fight is for self-determination first and foremost!
    • Blackan.png Black Anarchism - My black comrade. Keep fighting imperialism!
    • Indigenous Anarchism.png Indigenous Anarchism - Resist statist power structures!

    Frenemies

    • Nation.png Nationalism - As much as I dislike the term nationalism, I'm still waiting for you to acknowledge that nations are stateless and borderless.
    • Anat.png Anationalism - Only redeemable quality is your anarchism, and possibly your economics. You took internationalism too far.

    Enemies

    Further Information

    YouTube

    Wikipedia

    People

    People in bold are viewed as independence anarchists, people in bold and italics are viewed as predecessors to independence anarchism, and people in italics are mostly known for other reasons although they fit in one of the two previous categories.

    Literature

    General

    Catalan Countries

    Brittany

    Occitania

    Basque Country

    • Anark-Herria by Marc Légasse and Jakue Pascual. Publishing house Txertoa, Basque Country, 1986. Re-edited by Juantxo Estebaranz, Javi Olaizola, Ritxi Aizpuru, Idoia Eizmendi, Jordi Bonet i Martí and Jon Markel Ormazabal. Publishing houseTxalaparta, 2011. (In Spanish and Basque)
    • El movimiento autónomo en Euskadi by Emilio López Adán (Beltza). (In Spanish)
    • Apuntes sobre anarquismo y cuestión nacional by Jakue Pascual. Published in the Borroka Garaia da! website; Basque Country; November 28th, 2011. (In Spanish)
    • Independentzia osoa / Independencia total by Anark-Herria. Basque Country, 2000's. (In Basque and Spanish)
    • Anarquismo e izquierda abertzale by Borroka garaia da!. Published in the Borroka Garaia da! website; Basque Country; June 4th, 2015. (In Spanish)
    • Aportación al debate sobre la izquierda abertzale by Jakue Pascual. Published in the Anark-Herria website; Donostia-San Sebastián; November 18th, 2011. (In Spanish)
    • Marc Légasse: anarquista y separatista (interview with Marc Légasse). Published in the Punto y Hora de Euskal Herria magazine, Bermeo, September 1982. (In Spanish)
    • Breve historia del anarquismo vasco by Juantxo Estebarantz. Publishing house Txertoa; June 17th, 2011. (In Spanish)
    • Por una alternativa libertaria y global by Mikel Orrantia. Publishing house Zero Zyx; January 1st, 1978. (In Spanish)
    • Nación y anarquismo: notas para una discusión más allá de las caricaturas by Manuel de la Tierra. Published in the Ekintza Zuzena magazine, Santiago de Chile, December 2010. (In Spanish)
    • Euskadi: ETA y el nacionalismo revolucionario by Mikel Orrantia. Published in the Revista Mensual/Monthly Review, May 1979. (In Spanish)
    • Cuestión nacional y autonomía obrera en Euskal Herria by Zirikatu. Biscay, 1985 (published in 1989). (In Spanish)
    • Comandos Autónomos: un anticapitalismo iconoclasta by the Felix Likiniano Cultural Association. Publishing house Likiniano Elkartea, Bilbao, November 1996. (In Spanish)
    • Komando Autonomoak: una historia anticapitalista by the Felix Likiniano Cultural Association. Publishing house Virus; Bilbao; December 17th, 1998. (In Basque and Spanish)
    • Nazio arazoa by Bereterretxe. Publishing house Likiniano Elkartea, 1978. (In Basque)
    • Telúrica vasca de liberación by Jakue Pascual. Publishing house Virus, November 1996. (In Spanish)
    • El hilo negro de los noventa: encuentros con la autonomía by the Felix Likiniano Cultural Association. Publishing house Likiniano Elkartea, Bilbao. (In Spanish)
    • La gran curva vasca del 2000 by Karlos García Salmones. Publishing house Likiniano Elkartea, c. 2000, Bilbao. (In Spanish)
    • Palabras de un anarquista vasco by Marc Légasse. Publishing house Likiniano Elkartea; January 1st, 2002; Bilbao. (In Spanish)
    • Felix Likiniano: miliciano de la utopía by Pilar Iparragirre. Publishing house Txalaparta; Tafalla; January 1st, 1994. (In Spanish)
    • Marc Légasse: un rebelde burlón by Amaia Ereñaga. Publishing house Txalaparta; 1997. (In Spanish)

    Canary Islands

    Sicily

    Sardinia

    Castile

    Puerto Rico

    Kabylia

    Cuba

    Russia

    Ukraine

    Quebec

    Aragon

    • El Consejo de Aragón by Alejandro García. Published in the Utopías y realidades blog; Aragon; February 22nd, 2008. (In Spanish)

    Asturias

    Galicia

    Cantabria

    • Anarquismo y nacionalismo by Agitación Rural. Published in the 2nd issue of the Agitación Rural fanzine, Cantabria, 2008. (In Spanish)

    Levant


    Websites

    Catalan Countries

    Organizations not officially independence anarchist, with independence anarchist members or sympathetic beliefs:

    Brittany

    Occitania

    Basque Country

    Canary Islands

    Sicily

    Sardinia

    Andalusia

    Castile

    Hong Kong

    Puerto Rico

    Quebec

    Aragon

    Asturias

    Galicia


    Navigation

    Cookies help us deliver our services. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies.

    Recent changes

  • Altem101 • 1 minute ago
  • Antonio 1555 • 1 minute ago
  • YugoslavPartisan2 • 5 minutes ago
  • Stk • 6 minutes ago
  • Cookies help us deliver our services. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies.